Now we can quite reasonably argue that in developed countries, habits, intentions and overall behavior of economic agents form the culture of marketing (from the English. Market- market, trading, sales, commercial activities, in another version - the result of contamination words market getting - market penetration). Good place winning marketing and Ukraine. And again at the beginning of the 90 p. XX century. the phenomenon of economic life here was known mainly to specialists, but now its development - one of the main conditions of release enterprises from the crisis of market relations.
Effective implementation and use of marketing in the Ukraine requires first of all a proper understanding of its essence, and this thing is quite complicated, because even on rough estimates only the most modern Western definitions of marketing and domestic literature offers several thousand. This is due to different methodological approaches to marketing scholars characteristics of marketing.
The most common is the conceptual approach that considers marketing as:
- Oriented business thinking, integrated, consumer-oriented and the final result of the company (the maximum long-term gain) philosophy of business activity (business) by market conditions and competition;
- Based on accurate knowledge, foresight and consideration of market requirements and customers' complex science-based ideas about the management of the value of the enterprise under market conditions;
-systematyzovane and systematic napryamlennya all functions on customer satisfaction and the possibility of using the potential markets and timely response to management impulses from the market, that market orientation of the vision - a unique feature of business;
- A comprehensive, systematic approach to problem solving market that covers all stages of movement of goods, since learning needs and demand, production, provision of services related to the sale and after-sales service to organizing;
- The process by which society first, provides its consumer needs, and secondly, creates and develops distribution system products, and thirdly, on the basis of technical, ethical and social conditions conducive to finding those products that are best realized through market division of labor.
Thus, the conceptual approach gives an overview of marketing, distinguishes it as a frame of reference, business phylo Sofia on market conditions and competition. In this regard does not hurt to recall Kant's assertion that philosophy is only the idea of a possible science, which is not given in concreto, but which we try to approach different ways. According to Kant, mathematics, history, physics can be learned, and philosophy - no. You can only learn to philosophize, is to train talent reasoning based on certain general principles, but always recognizing the right reason to investigate the source of these principles, confirming or rejecting the latter.
A talented entrepreneur who has achieved success, is the one who turned the philosophy of marketing methods to appropriate algorithms practical steps, practical consideration of influence, power and environmental conditions that transformed this philosophy into successful real economic activity.
Considering this is a much more specific functional approach to understanding marketing based on marketing functions now performed. According to this approach is marketynh-:
- Trading activity that contributes to a product or service, their advancement from producers to consumers;
- Streamlining the flow of goods and services from producers to
consumers or users;
- Minimizing the effort for the sale of goods or services;
- The process of creating satisfied customers;
- Meeting the needs and wishes of the people;
- Ensure the appropriate level of life in society, determining its standards;
- Feature creative use of company resources to achieve consistency between its capabilities and demand;
- Planning and implementation plan, assessment of demand, pricing and distribution of ideas, goods or services through the exchange that is able to meet human needs. [/ Announce]
Commodity approach treats marketing as an activity of distribution of goods regardless of their value, as well as the ability to solve these or other problems or consumer goods operate in accordance with the concept of their life cycle. Therefore, the main marketing issues from the perspective of this approach is to study existing and future needs and demands of consumers, the selection of such a complex product attributes that provides adequate benefits a particular market segment, because he (complex) is more important to buyers than other product offers.
System-behavioral approach represents marketing because of problems associated with changes in the relevant systems and supposedly characteristics and consequences of such changes. This approach involves finding solutions for problems through the use of four systems.
The system input and output. For the production of goods necessary to introduce in production related industrial components that formed the final product. The system examines the process of introducing the necessary components and production yields, restructuring of production based on market demand, and obtain the necessary ingredients for the least cost.
The system of government - is the power of influence of various companies in the market. Engaged in the same business, companies are trying to enhance its role, increase their revenues and profits. You must explore the market at all times, which is essential for improving competitiveness, optimization of market behavior.
Communication system - a means by which the company provides and receives the necessary information in order to take rational decisions, to stimulate buying activity.
The system to adapt to internal and external conditions. It explores the nature of the response on changing consumer behavior and their own internal environment, identifying and solving problems associated with such changes.
The institutional approach is to understand marketing as a system with many elements that interact with each other and with elements of external systems. Under this approach, marketing - This integrated organizational structure, which includes functional subsystems that meet existing marketing divisions, as well as a set of entities (organizations, companies, firms and so on. P.), Involved in the movement of goods market.
National approach requires consideration of the characteristics of marketing, which are determined by national traditions, historically methods and ways of trading attitude to entrepreneurship in some countries.
Thus, the home marketing in the US, entrepreneurs seeks to manufacture and sale of a maximum number of products, which is only possible due to the continuous development of production systems sales, especially of powerful promotion. Without proper advertising US goods sold can not be.
In Europe, the more value the reliability and stability. It also defines the predominant orientation of European marketing primarily to create good-quality products, good image of their manufacturers and sellers. Therefore, the European business marketing is not a separate function of marketing staff organizational structures (in the US), and the entire staff.
In Japan meet the tastes and preferences of customers, entrepreneurs perceive as their unbreakable duty. This necessitates "service" customer, offering him a reliable high-quality products that speak for themselves and do not need additional advertising. The main objective of the Japanese marketing - inner balance, to achieve the highest quality, reduce production costs.
Management approach to marketing involves understanding his close connection with process management enterprise that operates in specific market conditions. According to this approach is marketynh-:
- Leading sector of economic management totality of activities related to the transformation of the purchasing power of consumers in effective demand for specific products or services they bring to the final or intermediate (production or trade) buyers for desired profit or achieving goals;
- Method of managing trade-industrial system which provides identification, forecasting, increased needs and wishes, organizing resources and business opportunities to meet the needs with the highest profit company;
- Focused on the needs of the market system of organization and management of all systems of business activity: from the first sketches of the design and production of a new product to bring it to the next consumer services;
- Creating utility product for the factors of time, place, form and ownership, which is carried out by the production and promotion of products enterprises, ensuring their sale and purchase.
Each of these definitions of marketing is in its own right, but none is not exhaustive. Is there anything in common between them, combining? What exactly is the subject and object of marketing? The answers can be found by using the approach to the understanding of marketing in terms of economic theory. As you know, its subject is the relationship between people, resulting in the production, exchange, distribution or consumption. Accordingly, the object of marketing - is that relations between producers and consumers and other entities on the exchange values in a particular market.
There is a dual purpose of such relations. First, market conditions for each entity in the market for a market where the main character - the consumer. This latter his "mint ballot" vote for or against the results of economic producers who compete with each other, competing for the consumer. Winning this fight is ensured in organic ability to meet the demands and needs of consumers adjust to the conditions of the business environment. Second (thanks to the first), each commodity is trying to create and maintain comfortable conditions for their activity, sustained positive (profitable) balance between their capacity and market conditions.
Thus, the object of marketing is a system of "commodity-consumer" for the predominant influence of the latter.