The origin and evolution of the concept of marketing
Marketing concept emerged in the US in the late XIX - early XX century. The first who pointed out that marketing has become a central feature of the enterprise, and create target groups of consumers - specific work manager was Kormik Mack (1809 - 1884 pp.) Of the International lapping machines. Engineer by education, he introduced the practice of marketing research company, the concept of creating a target market of the company, pricing, service.
However, the first definition of marketing belongs to Americans P Butler and A. Shaw. In the book "Buying, selling and trading methods" (New York, 1911), they identified marketing as a combination of factors that should be considered by organizations work with nature sale as an activity that promotes sales.
Perhaps, due to this fact, as well as the chronology of marketing, most scientists marketers date of occurrence of the beginning of XX century. Thus, the first courses in marketing ( "Marketing of products", "marketing methods") was introduced in leading US universities in 1901-1905 pp. In 1908 organized the first marketing research firm. In 1911. first joined the marketing department warehouse management system of American corporations. In 1937 was created the American Marketing Association. Milestones in the history of this association below.
Chronicle of the American Marketing Association
1915 - Creation of the National Association of Teachers of advertising (NAVR)
1931 - Creation of the American Society of Marketing 1933 - NAVR is the National Association of Teachers of Marketing (NAVM)
1936 - The publication of the first issue of "Marketing" (special edition NAVM and the American Society of Marketing)
1937 - Creation of the American Marketing Association (masses by means) through the merger of the American Society NAVM and marketing
1940 -AAM has 817 members and 11 departments in 1950 - has 3,800 members masses by means of 1959 - 7000 has masses by means members
1964 - publication of the first issue of "Marketing Research"
1967 - published the first issue of "Marketing News" in 1970 - masses by means has 18380 members and 253 branch 1981 - masses by means comprises 43,000 members and 450 branches in 1986 - masses by means starts the journal "Medical Marketing" in 1990 - masses by means starts journal "Public policy and marketing"
I must say that the individual elements marketing have been known to mankind since ancient times. But in the US due to the spread of competition, awareness and experience of consumers, increase production capacity and needs of market users (ie a situation where demand is lower than the offering of goods) individual elements marketing was joined in, tested appropriate marketing concepts and organizational structure.
Since its inception, the concept of marketing was a long path of evolutionary development (Table. 1). Knowledge of the stages of this evolution not only has historical significance: it allows, first, to understand the logic of marketing as a process of consistent extension efforts for the development of enterprises of their target markets; Second, choose the necessary and sufficient currently marketing concept on the basis of its potential and conditions of the business environment; Third, advance to prepare for the transition to the next, more sophisticated conceptual, marketing database development.
The main stages of the evolution of the marketing concept shown in Table. 1.
In the first stage marketing support functions considered as the main problem was the production of goods. US economy at that time was characterized by the presence of market sales (demand for goods exceeded their offerings). Consumers are willing to buy just about anything that was made. Dzh.-B. Say, a French economist, defined the essence of contemporary business, "production creates its basic needs." This situation gave rise to a business idea that products sell themselves, so marketing fokusuvav attention to increase production of traditional products of limited range, the development of existing production capacity, economies of scale and more. That is why this concept was called and production.
The main result of the use of production concept was the saturation of the market in goods, the formation of the consumer market (offering products exceeded demand for them). So the next step increment was urgent efforts to improve product quality, its functional characteristics, range, packaging, design and more. This concept is called commodity.
In the third stage entrepreneurs attracted attention system sales. Marketing is considered as a branch of applied economics, the subject of which is the system of distribution of products. It is clear that this view has contributed to a significant increase in the number of sales agents, the development of new methods and ways of trading, distribution channels and so on. P. Management of production and marketing activity directed at overcoming the difficulties and obstacles that have begun to appear to the movement of goods from the places of production to places of consumption, the active search for customers, sales income of aggressive organization, based on the capacity of producers. Hence the name of the concept of - sale marketing.
There are almost all named this concept. The fact that every entrepreneur works on the principle of reasonable sufficiency. If the concept works the lower level, just use it because it provides a cost savings (the concept of a higher level is always more expensive). But the entrepreneur must always remember that time will come when he will have to go to the next, more advanced marketing concepts.