Marketing as a science and as a practical activity operates several concepts. Among them are such key.
Requirements - a specific condition of the person (groups of people or society as a whole), which arises from the fact that, first, the person exists by itself as a biological being, and secondly, it is part of the social system and, thirdly it always interacts with the environment, that is, society and nature. Requirements - a subjective feeling of lack of satisfaction is always associated with human attempts to get rid of or at least reduce feelings. This attempt to become the driving force of individual behavior in the market.
Economic theory holds about the needs neutral, explaining that the needs defined above human nature, and thus have predekonomichne origin. In other words, needs arise and exist independently of the will or desire entrepreneur who only tries to recognize them, they point to the consumer or to satisfy them.
The first marketing needs classification was elaborated in 1938 Murray. According to this classification needs depending on their origin are divided into primary (generic or physiological) and secondary (social and cultural), from the attitudes of the individual - positive (those attracting) and negative (those that repel) the degree specific detection - the obvious and latent, due to the degree of introspective processes of individuals - the conscious and unconscious, the source of stimulation meet those needs - dependent on the internal and external environment, the state in which they are located - in refractory (no the incentive is not conducive to their excitation), stimulated (need passive, but can be excited) and active (current).
Thus, unlike economics Marketing provides specific category stimulated needs, which can be called to life entrepreneurs.
The best known and most widely used are created in the 40's p. XX century. American scientist Maslow theory, according to which all human needs are divided into two categories and five levels. This not only Maslow classified the needs and placed them in strict hierarchical sequence (Fig. 1). However, if the line meet the primary needs of human life more or less clearly defined, the needs are secondary to a higher level and the difference between them is not so clear. Needs a higher level are a powerful factor in human behavior only when the requirements are satisfied lower level.
There are other theories needs. Thus, based on the theory macro Klellanda lies the notion that people need inherent power, success and involvement.
Requirements of power - a desire to influence others. People that they dominated this need inherent openness, vitality.
They are not afraid of confrontation, boldly defend their position, demanding attention to themselves from others.
Success needs are met in the process of bringing the work to a successful conclusion. These people are not inclined to risk too, but enjoy the situation when they can take personal responsibility.
Requirements involvement creates interest in communicating with other people, the desire to establish friendly relations, assisting others.
Herzberg's theory needs and behavior of people formed by interaction of two groups of factors.
The first group includes the factors dependent on the environment, the second - the motivation of conduct related to the nature and content of work can be successful promotion, recognition and approval performance, highly active, creative ability and business growth. According to the theory of Herzberg in the absence or insufficient number of factors first group begins dissatisfaction. However, if these factors are available and sufficient, that by themselves they do not generate much pleasure and can not motivate people to anything. In contrast, the lack or inadequacy of motivation (second group of factors) were caused to dissatisfaction. But their presence creates a fully satisfying and motivating workers to improve efficiency.
If the theory of Maslow Murray and marketing are universal in nature, the theory of McClelland and Herzberg can be used only for specific commodity - labor.
Values - this is important and significant in terms of the individual objects, actions, lifestyles, ideas and so on. P. ; This common belief about what is good or bad is immaterial in life. Values are determined by the culture of society and of the individual and will always exist in the form of appropriate systems. Values can be individual and social, material and spiritual.
According to the theory Rokycha there are two types of values: terminal and instrumental. Terminal values - a belief of people about the purpose and final state, which they try to approach (eg, happiness, prosperity, knowledge, etc.). Instrumental values - a picture of the desired behavior methods to achieve terminal values (eg, responsibility, courage, talent, self-control, etc.).
Kyle has identified eight the total value, which can be the proper way to measure, such as: self-esteem, safety, relationships, a sense of pride from reached, meet each other, respect from others, belonging (to something - a social group, party other particular community, etc.) joy.
Most successful (or at least most used) in marketing is the theory of consumer values, established in 1991 Shetom, Nyuma- and Mr. Gross. It values all qualified for the five groups depending on what causes the utility benefits. Thus, we have values:
- Functional - good benefits due to its ability to play a utilitarian role;
- Social - utility benefits due to its association with a particular social group;
- Emotional - good benefits due to its ability to excite feeling or effective response;
- Epietemichni - good benefits due to its ability to arouse curiosity, to create new concepts or satisfy craving for knowledge;
- Conditional - good benefits due to a specific situation that it operates one who selects.
Typically, the value of consumer goods balance formed two groups of factors (Fig. 2). Determinants value system provider in Fig. 3.
Epistemology - teachings about the nature and patterns of knowledge; epistemology.
(Request) - a form of external detection needs, ie needs which took concrete shape under the specific personality of the individual and its system of values. If the requirements are peredekonomichne origin, the wishes of the people depend on the will and behavior business and can be formed by them.
Request consumers can be interpreted as a narrow (demand for specific goods or services) and in the broadest sense of the word, for example, the basic wishes of industrial customers is delivery time (its timeliness) specification (correspondence delivered range ordered), the number and quality its integrity (saving in transit), accommodation (delivery in the right place), the competence of providers, their loyalty.
The main wishes of end users is peace and security, solve their problems, friendliness, ability to communicate with or producer of the seller, a partnership with him, product quality, greatest level of satisfaction with him, after-sales warranty and more.
Demand - a desire of consumers based on their purchasing power. In fact, with this concept of daily deals entrepreneur performing tactical and operational marketing tasks. There are several types of demand, such as:
- Negative - the buyer may, but does not want to buy a product because it refers to the negative (low quality, low service, etc.);
- Zero - the buyer can buy, but do not buy goods because it treats not care or does not know about it;
- Constantly decreases - the volume of purchases fall (usually due to loss of commodity market appeal);
- Unstable (irregular, seasonal) - the volume of purchases of goods subject to significant fluctuations during the year;
- Creative - the demand for goods that are not on the market;
- Latent (incipient) - a demand that is found only in a small number of requests or purchases;
- Full - very high in terms of commercial benefit of the seller;
- Misleading - full in the short term, but one that has no future;
- Excessive - rather high, but so artificial and short;
- Unwanted (irrational) - for goods undesirable for ethical reasons or social standards of society (alcohol, tobacco);
- Daily (permanent) - almost constant sales at short intervals (daily, weekly);
- Special - the unique products;
- Inflation - for goods purchasing to save money on depreciation.
In total there are ninety-demand measurement types (Fig. 4).
All these concepts of marketing (needs, values, wishes and demand) the system is the main focus of business activity (Fig. 5). Targeting entrepreneurs are not separate elements, and
the system as a whole helps to:
- To understand the reasons and logic appearance or disappearance of demand;
- To manage demand, develop it through the introduction of appropriate tools of influence marketing (marketing programs);
- Create and develop demand for new products;
- Create new target markets (consumer groups that previously were not users of a product);
- To focus its activities on demand, based on stable, permanent needs.
Product - is all that can meet the needs or wishes of the market and offered to attract attention, acquisition, use or consumption (products, services, identity, political parties, ideas, activities, land, etc.).
Marketing activities are much more effective when it differently, and therefore the totality of goods must be appropriately classified. According to the marketing of goods classification divides them into the following groups:
on purpose - capital goods and consumer demand; the use of the term - and short-term products
the method of production - standard and unique products; the level of market innovation - traditional] modified products, new products;
the nature of the use and the level of prices - goods regular and selective demand, prestige goods, luxury items.
Goods in consumer demand can be further classified into the following groups:
> Consumer goods, buy them regularly, usually not signing their price or quality and not comparing them with similar goods; distinguish their three varieties - Main goods (purchased constantly, do not cause doubt regarding price, quality and purpose); goods impulse buying (simple cheap goods that the consumer buys the accident under the influence of unconscious internal pulse); goods for emergencies (eg, patent medicine);
> Products previous choice: to purchase consumer compares them with other similar products in terms of quality, price, appearance, measures meet the needs of others;
> Products specific demand: unique and branded products, which are often classified as prestige or luxuries;
> Secondhand goods demand: the consumer they do not know or think about the necessity of purchase.
Products for industrial purposes can also be divided into several groups:
> Raw materials - products of extractive industries and agriculture;
> Materials - products processing industries;
> Semi - products which are in the final stages of manufacture;
> Component parts - finished products used as components for various units;
> Ancillary equipment and materials.
A variety of products are services that the results of certain actions that give useful effect. There are services for the maintenance, consulting, leasing, manufacturing (preparation of raw materials or materials for industrial use), education, transport, information, advertising, accounting, legal and others.
Service as a commodity has a number of features that affect its marketing, such as:
- Immateriality - it is impossible to test the service in advance (before its acquisition);
- Change its quality over time (qualitative instability by engaging at different times to different people providing services);
- Inseparability of the supplier;
- Inability storage (accumulation of reserves).
Marketing classification of services provides their distribution
- Method of execution - providing machines or trafficking;
- The presence of the client - mandatory or not;
- Receipt reasons - for personal or business use;
- Reasons provider - commercial or non-commercial;
- Forms of - individual or mass (consumer - a consumer organization or - individual);
- Materiality forms - tangible or intangible.
Cost - is a comprehensive concept that includes consumer
pricing and cost consumption. Consumer value is quality product, its value, the creation of a benefit to the consumer. To receive this benefit, the buyer has to sacrifice something. Monetary terms the cost of goods is its selling price. The cost of consumption - is the cost of maintenance or commercial use of the product, ie its maintenance and repair.
Satisfaction - a fact certain goods consumer choice together with others like him. Selected product gives pleasure if a highest possible utility value and thus provides a high level of satisfaction of needs (Fig. 6).
According to this notion satisfaction is determined by comparing the positive qualities of the product and the expectations of consumers. When the positive qualities of the goods exceeds expectations - we can talk about pleasure.
There are two types of satisfaction product:
- Functional - the pleasure of purchasing goods with higher functional characteristics;
- Psychological - the pleasure of purchase, which significantly increases the prestige of the buyer, improves its image.
Customer satisfaction is through the exchange.
Exchange - is the act of getting a particular object of a certain benefit to the proposal instead of something else. There barter (commodity - good) and commodity-money exchange (money - commodity or commodity - money).
Commercial exchange of values between the two sides called agreement. Agreement occurs when each of its members recognize that it is beneficial for him, that gives it the desired positive result.
To make the exchange required three conditions: an agreement on the value of the object; communication parties; transmission of values.
Market - an institution or mechanism that brings together buyers and
sellers of goods or services, where buyers are willing and capable of anything
buy, and sellers - interested in selling goods and agree to the exchange.
As already mentioned, depending on supply and markets differentiated offering sellers (demand for goods exceeds their offerings) and customers (offering exceeds demand).
For competitive market situation distinguish pure competition (a large number of individual buyers and sellers), monopolistic competition (competing monopolies), oligopolistic (few market almost equal to the power of large companies, among which the potential competition) and monopoly (dominant in the market only one company that produces such products).
The nature of commodity exchange markets distinguish goods, capital, labor and securities; for the relationship between buyers and sellers - free markets (open), closed (penetration prohibited) and regulated (regulated by the state); on methods and objects commodity exchange - the exchange, trading, auctions; by national boundaries - internal and external; the type of clientele - production, trade (brokerage), governmental organizations, end users, international; the areas of commodity movement - market purchases and sales of goods.
Depending on the degree of compliance of enterprise wishes of consumers, and its capacity to satisfy this desire distinguish target markets (one or more groups of users that are directed marketing program enterprise) side markets (a set of consumers who occasionally buy products company, but is not regular customers) and the so-called zone of indifference (consumers desire which do not meet the enterprise capabilities to their satisfaction).
In addition, the markets differ in branch affiliation, geography, location, complex needs of customers and other groups.