System tools marketing
System tools marketing - a set of measures and techniques specific tools now used to achieve this goal, the implementation of respective tasks.
Since the late 50-ies of XX century. means marketing system called "marketing mix» (marketing-mix). In the late 70s possible elements of this mixture was combined into four groups (the concept of "4R" from the initial letters of the English name of each group of elements), that product (goods), place (place), promotion (promotion), price ( price).
The main element of this "mix" - product. Here the main marketing tools of the company is its quality, variety, appearance, features, brand, packaging, size, service, guarantee the possibility of returning the goods the buyer and others. The key to creating a product of elements is finding and realization of significant benefits for consumers against commercial competitors' offers a wide range - from packaging to environmental safety. Ideally, all goods must be unique in the market.
Distribution - a first design of enterprise sales channels. They must associate the company with the market, to provide opportunities for the realization of its products. In addition, the unit of the means of marketing involves the proper methods and techniques to create the supply system, the choice of agents and management, training of sales staff, product placement in relevant commercial establishments, the formation of each optimum assortment and product range, the accumulation of necessary and sufficient it inventories of transportation and storage and so on.
Promotion aims to create an information company relationship with its target market. Here are the main tools of marketing is advertising, promotion, sales promotion and personal selling.
Pricing is to determine the methods of rate card prices, discounts, payment terms and trade credit customers.
In recent years, this concept is complemented by several other "P", including people (consumers), process (processes), physical evidence (physical evidence), personal (staff), partnership (friendly relations with consumers). Such supplements are especially important for marketing services. For industrial marketing is an essential element of another "P» - preferred suppliers (long
relationships with the best suppliers).
So, on the one hand, the concept of "marketing mix" - a systematic list of possible marketing tools, and the second - optimum and effective combination of necessary and sufficient concrete action system "product-market." Between these two poles rather large distance. The nature of its passage (ie the order of creation: the use of "marketing mix") may provide adequate benefits (due commercial effect) or become harmful (unprofitable), or even disastrous (defeat enterprises in the competition, its withdrawal from the market). With this in mind, to create effective "marketing mix" - one of the most urgent, time-consuming and complex issues of marketing practices. Success in this regard based on the following fundamental principles.
Each system is "product-market" requires the creation of individual, precisely proven "marketing mix". This last has to be flexible, that dynamically change according to changes in the business environment.
"Marketing mix" should construct in order to achieve synergy, ie maximum effectiveness sharing marketing tools and actions by vzayemoposylennya these actions.
"Marketing mix" should accurately target in this coordinate system:
- The market (whether it is suitable for this product or price level, or
type of advertising, etc.);
- Competitors (their possible reaction, strategy, strengths and weaknesses);
- Enterprise (capacity, resources, technology, personnel, etc.).
"Marketing mix" should always be complex and harmonious combination of tools and actions. In other words, the structure of the need to make the necessary and sufficient number of these actions and tools with simultaneous prediction of logical consistency and mutual agreement procedure implementation.
Created "marketing mix" should be active, that provide not only the requirements of the market, but its formation (real help to increase its capacity to activate
consumer purchasing activity, etc.).
Any "marketing mix" be sure to clearly plan. The fact that the procedure for its implementation is usually taught as a clear program of action with details of time, place, responsible for the implementation of certain measures, forms of control and so on.
Of course also that any "marketing mix" should just economically justified. This means that it is, on the one hand, should be probyudzhetovana, and the second - a detailed definition of the calculated economic performance (revenue, profit), which hopes after its implementation.