The essence of the system and marketing research
According to the International Code of Marketing YESOMAR study - a systematic collection and objective recording, classification and analysis of data on the behavior, needs, attitudes, experiences, motivations, etc. individuals and organizations in the context of their economic, political, social and household activities.
The American Marketing Association defines marketing research as a function, which is the connecting link between the consumer, customer and public commodity and using information. The latter is used to determine the definition and marketing issues; for the generation, evaluation and improvement of marketing activities; to monitor marketing activities; to improve understanding of marketing as a process. Marketing research specifies the information required to search these data, developing methods of collecting information, manages and directs its data collection process, analyzes the results, according to the findings and their implementation.
The role of marketing research is to assess the market situation, provide information that enables the creation of an effective marketing program of the company. The purpose of market research is to identify both problems and opportunities of the enterprise take a competitive position in a particular market at a particular time, reduce risk and uncertainty as to increase the likelihood of successful marketing. The subject of market research is a specific marketing problem concerning the situation in the microenvironment or external business environment of the enterprise, and their subject - a subject of «undertaking market-economy" or certain of its specific characteristics.
The basic principles of market research are:
- Consistency: consistency, consistency, frequency of;
- Complexity, consideration and analysis of all elements and factors in their relationship and dynamics;
- Focus: focus on solving urgent clearly defined purely marketing issues;
- Objectivity, independence from subjective assessments and effects;
- Reliability: information and guidance to ensure the accuracy of the data;
- Economy: excess benefits from the implementation of findings and recommendations of the costs associated with conducting market research;
-rezultatyvnist: the presence of intermediate and final results, which will help in solving marketing problems;
- Compliance with the principles of fair competition.
The main objectives of market research are:
- Analysis and projected market research;
- Determining the size and dynamics of demand and supply of goods, the ratio of their quantities;
- Calculation capacity of the market as a whole and its separate segments;
- Research projected sales volumes;
- Definition of competitive position, the image of the company and its products;
- The study of consumer behavior, competitors, intermediaries, suppliers and other market players;
- Analysis of the marketing activity;
- Evaluate the effectiveness of marketing activities;
- Development of recommendations on improving commodity, price, communication and distribution of marketing policy of the company;
- Development of detailed marketing program.
The structure of marketing research in Fig. 7.
Depending on the purpose of the information used, how it
acquisition, technology implementation and outcomes are the following types of marketing research.
Desk research. their aim is to develop general ideas about different issues and aspects of marketing activities, the behavior of the market. Information obtained through such studies of targeted experiments, surveys and observations of market conditions, its trends, the competitive environment and so on.
To obtain information used as official publications, business information databases and more. In the process of desk research by highly qualified experts widely used methods of economic analysis.
Field research. their goal is to not general as in the previous case, and specific ideas about different issues and aspects of marketing activities, the behavior of the market. Information obtained through such studies conducting targeted surveys, observations and experiments. To process information, obtain appropriate conclusions often resorted to methods of economic analysis.
Method of test sales (pilot study). Used for lack of complete information or the inability to collect and summarize. This method combines specific marketing activities (marketing, advertising, changes in the price level) with investigation processes and their results known principle of "trial and error".
Panel studies are conducted on the basis of regular communication defined (always the same) group of consumers, enabling analysis and dynamics of their demands, motivations, attitudes and so on.
The method of focus groups - easy communication with 6-10 mA persons with similar characteristics (education, age, marital status, profession) to determine their views, attitudes toward specific marketing challenges to the ways of its solution.
Business contacts. The method involves communicating with other businesses or to consumers at exhibitions, fairs, presentations, social meetings and so on.
Advantages and disadvantages of these types of marketing research are presented in Table. 4.
One of the principles and the most important prerequisite for achieving the objectives of the study is to respect the logical sequence of its stages. According to this algorithm market research process involves a series of steps (stages), shown in Fig. 8
Initial (initial) phase of the process of marketing research - identifying the problem (research subject). Such a problem can be:
- Negative symptoms (reducing the company's market share, profitability, return, return, etc.);
- The reasons for the negative symptoms (failed system of marketing management, poor organization of marketing research, unfavorable competitive environment, etc.). '
To identify the problem, you can use the data analysis of the results of industrial and economic and marketing activities of the company, expert interviews, observations of the performance of marketing functions.
The next stage of the process of marketing research - evaluation of research capacity problems. This possibility is determined by the reality of obtaining the necessary marketing information, adequacy of time and resources, as estimated impact studies, the definition of full range of alternative actions that can be used to solve the problem.
The third phase of marketing research - the exact formulation of objectives and goals (specific list of research works to be executed). The task of marketing research is the analysis developed solutions to specific problems of marketing (or provide the desired result of the implementation of certain marketing activities as compared with other options solution).
In the fourth stage, developing a research project. This defines the object of study, information sources, methods of collection, processing and analysis, and who, how and when it will collect and interpretuvatyme.
The fifth stage of the process of marketing research - a collection and systematization of marketing information. This stage requires the most time consuming and costs money is the source of the greatest number of errors. Because of the difficulty in establishing communications with respondents (wrong answers, refusal of cooperation, the need for additional meetings, etc.), problems with collectors of information (bias judgments, low qualifications, dishonesty, etc.).
The result of these phases of market research are arrays of information, ie, the "raw material", which must be processed to make it suitable for decision-making. So the next step in the process of marketing research is to analyze the information received, the calculation of the ratios, indices, time series and so on.
The final stage of the marketing research is to prepare the report and its protection, as well as the adoption of specific marketing solutions.
Market research companies can perform their own (own organizational form) or by specialized research organizations.
By their own organizational forms of marketing research primarily include marketing department, which include special units (Bureau, sectors, etc.) research. Large companies may be established and some market research departments with their own internal organizational structure. In addition to permanent units, enterprises can be established and temporary organizational structure.
- Council (of the problem) at the level of senior management company (consisting of department managers and leading specialists) who consider and decide on the strategic direction of the company;
- Temporary advisory groups at middle management (can include marketing professionals, sales agents), conducting research and offering appropriate decisions on tactical and operational matters of the company;
- Venture capital group created to handle projects that have high commercial risk, heads the group, usually the author of the idea; During the existence of limited (usually up to 6 months.).
In many cases, the company creates its own research institutions, and refers to specialized organizations:
-tvorchyh teams of teachers and students in higher education;
- Information companies (organizations) that collect and offer information as "raw material" for these studies;
- Consulting firms that not only gather information but also analyze it, prepare relevant reports commissioned by the client;
- Advertising agencies;
- Agencies conduct surveys.
To determine exactly who perform marketing research, take into account the following factors:
- The cost of research (which is cheaper?)
- Availability of appropriate experience and qualifications of staff;
- Knowledge of the technical features of the product;
- The availability of special equipment;
- The possibility of preservation of trade secrets;
- Speed of execution.