Marketing information - a source element of market research and market valuable product. The value of marketing information is that it is a prerequisite for gaining competitive advantage, helping to reduce commercial risk, identify and take account of changes in the business environment.
Good information facilitates processing and coordination of strategies, support and grounding of the relevant decisions, improve the image of the company, makes it possible to analyze its activities in order to increase its effectiveness.
Classification marketing information given in the Table. 5.
The main methods of collecting primary data is a survey, observation, experiment and simulation.
Poll - still the main and most common method of collecting primary data, although lately it is gradually losing its way. Poll - this interview, taken as a respondent in person, by phone or by mail using the questionnaire sheet (questionnaire). Advantages and disadvantages of different methods of survey are shown in Table. 7.
Observation - a realistic assessment of the situation by systematic accounting of behavior without verbal or other communication and without affecting the object of observation. The object of observation is typically a consumer's behavior in the shop front showcase, advertisements, his reaction to these or those events. Supervision is not used as often as the survey. It is mainly used to determine the purpose of research or summarizing statements. The advantages observations against the polls is their independence from the willingness or unwillingness to cooperate object, can register unconscious behavior and the impact factors of the business environment. The disadvantages are the complexity observations provide representative sampling, observer subjectivity, unnatural behavior of the object of observation (if unaware that he was watching).
Observations can be conducted in real conditions (field) and in laboratories, with the direct participation of the researcher or without (observation side) occasionally or regularly, using special equipment (instruments, recorders) or without them, full or selective reach consumers.
Experiment - is to obtain information about the relationship between the dependent and independent variables, such as the schedule between advertising and the number of customers, price levels and sales volumes and so on. The objects of experimentation may be markets or their segments, products, prices, processes, marketing, advertising, etc., And their place - as the real conditions and special laboratory.
Simulation - a play action of various market factors using economic and mathematical models and computers. This simulation, despite some difficulties (the need for highly qualified specialists, special equipment, programs) has recently become priority in marketing research.
During market research can be used the following sources of marketing information, publications (periodicals, monographs, pamphlets, market reviews, guides, statistical compilations), special surveys (surveys, observations, experiments, simulation), certificates of official organizations, exporters, representatives of the companies, balance sheets, catalogs, brochures from other companies, exhibitions, fairs, conferences, presentations, summarizes the views of customers, consumers, customers, suppliers, intermediaries, financial institutions, informal sources (rumors, leaks ").
The algorithm of the gathering and interpretation of marketing data shown in Fig. 9.
The starting point of this phase is to define the problem that non-necessary to explore. The correct definition of the problem - half of future success as it establishes clear guidelines and limits of the work and directs the researcher to search for the necessary and sufficient information.
Then researchers determined the level of awareness (ie the number and nature as has information in its possession, and one that will be collected). To assess awareness using the following criteria:
- Objective: quantity (completeness), relevance (richness, significance), accuracy (uniqueness), reliability, clarity, timeliness, suitability to the purpose of the study;
- Subjective, riskiness, nature (stress or calming) motivation;
- Economic: the value of the expenditure required for the collection and accumulation of information;
- Restrictive, security, contact the admissibility of information and communications, the level of data protection.
The third stage of the process - the study of the concept of collecting information. He is developing the project of collecting information, methods of collection, alternative options (full or selective, one-time or periodic, single or multiple studies).
The fourth stage - collecting secondary information and validation of choice. The criteria for such verification is characteristic of the institution or organization that collected data matching task information, methods and the collection, the relevance of the data collected.
For failure to pass the information collected field research (collecting primary information). After that data be collected cultivation (report to the appropriate table, drawing diagrams, graphs with appropriate commentary).
The next stage of the process - data analysis. At this stage, the information "raw material" becomes relevant conclusions and recommendations. The last report submitted in that it protects the customer. This - the last stage of the process of gathering information.
In its activities with information of marketing solutions companies always encounter a number of problems: lack of required or excess of unnecessary information dispersion of information in different parts of the company, making it difficult to find, hiding officials information that may indicate shortcomings in their work late receipt of important information, the inability to determine its completeness, accuracy and so on. Facing these challenges may help create marketing information systems (MIS).
MIS - a specialized permanent structure that consists of appropriate personnel and equipment and provides specific treatments aimed at gathering, analysis, evaluation and presentation of information necessary to improve the marketing planning process, its implementation and control (Fig. 10).
The subsystem information collection - a set of procedures and a list of sources for information about current events taking place in the surrounding business environment.
Subsystem market research - a special unit of the enterprise that organized the systematic collection, analysis, and processing it in order to find concrete solutions to address specific marketing issues.
Analytical marketing subsystem - this interconnected set of data, tools and techniques, supported by appropriate software, by which the company collects and interprets internal and external business information to justify marketing activities.
Subsystem internal information includes data on the volume of orders and sales, the availability of products in marketing the company's warehouses and more.
3.3. Environment business environment and microenvironment enterprises as objects of market research.
Environment business environment - a combination of factors, actors, forces and conditions that affect the definition of the subject and object of marketing, a system it means the formation of their structure, that is an area that it is the subject of marketing activities management (Fig. 11).
Environment business environment the enterprise consists of several parts. First, it forces and external conditions. This part can be managed now, so research goal is to study and now account of its actions in order to prevent possible negative impacts or enhance positive impacts on business activity and effectiveness of its operations.
These conditions and external forces that determine the marketing activities of the company include:
- International: the system of international treaties and agreements; rules and regulations of foreign trade; laws of other countries to implement commercial transactions;
- Regulatory, government policy; system of state regulation of business, pricing, advertising, competition, the legislation;
- Economic: the state of the country (the level and dynamics of production and demand for goods and services); income levels, inflation, taxes);
TECHNOLOGICAL: the level of use of modern technologies; introduction of scientific and technological progress;
- Political: political structure; political organization of society;
- Environmental: requirements for environmental protection;
- Competitive: the intensity, forms and types of competition and its dynamics;
- Social, cultural, demographic.
The second part of the business environment - a subject with which contacted the company and which may affect to some extent.
Among the entities that belong to the external business environment, the main object of study is certainly consumers, their behavior - buying motives, habits and way of lifestyle, purchasing power, needs, values, wishes, demand, making processes making purchase - the most important factors that determine the content, direction and characteristics of marketing activities of the company.
In addition, during the research of the business environment study such subjects:
- State government, form a system of norms and rules of conduct; regulating business activities;
-aktsionery (owners), create and finance company, dispose of the property, based on their interests;
- Suppliers, providing enterprise necessary material and technical resources;
- Wholesale and retail trade: a consistent, organization and practice of trade relations with customers on the basis of the mediation;
- The media, providing enterprise communication links with the market;
- Competition: companies competing that operate in the same market, using similar strategies;
- Contact of the audience: parties, trade unions, religious organizations, consumer protection societies and other groups interested in the activities of the company, affecting its employees;
- Banking, insurance, research, security, transport organizations.
Another equally important object of marketing research is microenvironment company. Here are the most important aspects of the research mission, purpose and objectives of the company, determining its business and market share; the composition, qualifications, experience and methods of management, which is responsible for the correct choice of areas of common indicators describing its size, the dynamics of sales, revenues, profits, image, the role and place marketing and other business functions; development of corporate culture (system of values, norms and rules of behavior in the market) and others.
The main objective of the research business environment and micro enterprises - finding ways of achieving a lasting balance the interests of certain entities operating in the background of existing forces and conditions, elimination of contradictions between them through the creative use of their own potential. In this connection it is important the following:
- Consideration of achievements and failures, risks on the way to their goals;
- The process of adaptation, ie adjustment of marketing strategy for the company to environmental changes;
- Organization of feedback that the availability of information to the market regarding the effects of marketing activities of the company.