Marketing research includes the study and forecasting of its environment, its capacity calculation, determining the forecast sales performance, analysis of consumer behavior and competitors, as well as the competitive environment in general.
The market - it's real economic situation, and which characterize the relationship between supply and demand, the level and dynamics of prices, inventories and other indicators and factors (historical, national, climatic, territorial, political, social, economic, etc. ). During market research study as general economic conditions and conditions specific commodity markets. Studies include general economic conditions of studying the size and the ratio of supply and demand of goods analysis and dynamics solvency level and change the values of wholesale and retail prices, nominal and real incomes of the functioning of the securities market and monetary circulation, dynamics, productivity, investment volumes, the values of key macroeconomic indicators and so on. p. Research the situation specific product market involves the determination of the demand and supply of a particular product (volume, structure, dynamics, elasticity), proportionality (the ratio of supply and demand, commodity structure of trade turnover, market share, structure buyers and sellers regional structure), trends of sales volumes, prices, inventories, investments, data stability and cyclical market, the state of its business activities (portfolio, number, size, frequency and dynamics of transactions), risk analysis, with this place characteristic scale of the market (number of sellers and buyers, the level of privatization and monopolization, state of competition and so on. p.).
Weather conditions commodity market - is an objective probability judgments about the dynamics of its most important characteristics and their alternatives, provided certain assumptions come true. The algorithm shown in this prediction
Market capacity - is the sales of products in a particular market (sales of a particular group of consumers in the region in a given period of time in the same business environment as part of specific marketing programs). Even from the very essence of this definition logically follows that the size of the market - is not a fixed value, and the function of several variables. So in the process of marketing research determined two important market capacity.
The real size of the market - a sales catalog is currently a particular group of consumers.
The potential size of the market (market potential) - is the highest possible sales of goods for a certain period of time, which can be achieved through the implementation of relevant marketing programs. The calculation of the potential market size (Qp) is as follows:
There are two approaches to determine the capacity of the market:
-rynkove aggregation: the market is seen as one indivisible whole;
-rynkove segmentation - the market is divided into separate homogeneous parts (segments) or spend typology of consumers for certain homogeneous groups.
The market segmentation can be carried out using two approaches.
The first approach - the characteristics of segmentation products (destination, cost, matching fashion, popularity, technical complexity ^ degree of novelty, etc.).
The second approach segmentation is performed using the characteristics and behavior of consumers:
a) the geographical, country, region, type of settlement, climate, population density;
b) demographic characteristics: age, sex, marital status, family composition;
c) psychographic criteria: method and lifestyle, personality type;
d) socio-economic criteria: social class, type of employment, income, cost structure;
d) cultural characteristics: education, religion, traditions and values;
e) Behavior: Causes buying, user status, the measure needs products, emotional attitude to the product.
Forecast sales (sales) - a definition of what the company expects to sell based on the current market situation, market potential and their capabilities. There nekilkisni and quantitative methods of forecasting sales.
Nekilkisni methods - this expert assessment of future sales volume of the company. As experts workers using middle and senior management of the enterprise, commercial agents, buyers and independent experts. Among the best known quantitative methods are multiple regression (search equations describing the dependence of future sales volumes on the set of independent variables), correlation analysis, time series analysis, forecasting based on market share, the standard method of probability distribution, and others.Of particular relevance in the system of market research is the study of consumer behavior. Qualitative and quantitative composition, and what they buy, who is involved in the purchase, when, where and at what price they buy?
In the modern understanding consumer behavior - all those economic, social and psychological aspects that occur during the preparation and execution of purchase and use of the purchased product, including the transfer of experience to others; it acts performing individuals buying and using products or services, it's mental and social processes that precede these actions or coming for them.
To assess consumer behavior used interdys- tsyplinarnyy approach. Thus, economic science to help find answers to questions that have income consumers and how they are distributed, at what price they would like to purchase a particular product, how to estimate the demand and supply of goods and so on. Psychology helps to understand the motives and incentives of consumer behavior, ethnography - especially the origin, distribution, communication, culture and life of nations symptomatology - exterior signs identify the nature as phenomena hermeneutics - to explain and interpret texts and others.
Exploring consumer behavior, resort to several theoretical approaches. The most famous of them are:
1) economic theory that considers the decision of customers as a result of rational, that is logically consistent counting. Individual buyer tries to spend their income on goods from so that most meet their needs and tastes. However, some estimates only 25% of purchases is as follows;
2) motivational theory, which argues that the real reasons for purchasing goods are not always conscious character. Motivation behind the behavior is a result of the constant interference of complex conscious and unconscious, sensory, intellectual, and cultural and physiological needs.
Now the starting point is the study of consumer behavior study and construction of appropriate models. Models of consumer behavior - a conceptual scheme that classify information about how and why decisions on the purchase of goods (services). Using such models can better understand consumer behavior and, therefore, more effective use of marketing instruments. An example of such a model is shown in Fig. 13. In accordance with its decision-making process consumer purchase is made due to the influence of these groups of factors:
- The impact of external factors, including marketing tools, external socio-economic environment;
- Factors of the so-called black box customers;
- Situational influences.
The core of this model is the process of understanding prior Needs ?; Telem his intention, the adoption of specific decisions to purchase something and subsequent realization made.
The starting time of the decision to purchase - rozumiy-; of the problem, ie the difference between the desired and actual situation. Understanding the problem can be simple (finding of lack of the consumer of certain goods) or complex (discomfort, worsening the image), which ascertained independently or stimulating "lyuyetsya external factors (such as advertising).
Understanding the problem leads consumers to search for information on the ways and methods of solution. It primarily uses an internal search that attempts to find information in their own experience. If this is not enough and the risk of making wrong decisions very large external search begins (periodicals, brochures, exhibitions, presentations, experiences of other consumers, etc.).
The end result of finding information - creating a set of alternatives or options for the purchase of which the consumer must assess out the best in terms of solving their problems and in terms of the existing restrictions. Evaluation of alternatives is based on the use of objective (functional characteristics of the product, packaging, price, quality) and subjective criteria (prestige brand, image, uniqueness, popularity). However, quite often a consumer makes a decision - chooses the alternative - impulsively, that spontaneously under the influence of emotions and feelings, not facts. That is done about one-third of all purchases.
The last stage of the process - after buying behavior, ie comparing the consumer goods purchased with their hopes or expectations. As a result, the consumer feels pleasure or disappointment. If there is a last - should clarify the reasons for this situation.
According to the theory of Howard and Sheta there are three options in decision making purchase (tab. 8).
Decision making purchase usually takes place in various situational influences. This makes corrections, helps or hinders decision-making. These situational influences are:
- The physical environment: the geographical location of production or commercial establishment, its design, sounds, smells, lighting, appearance etc;
- Social environment, the presence of other people, their personal qualities behavior;
- The purchase, day, week, hour of day, month, season, number of days before or after the payment of wages;
- The purpose of buying, for whom or for what the product is purchased;
- A psychological condition: good or bad mood, well-being or fatigue;
- Information support: the level of information management, organization and form of information.
To study the stages of the purchase decision, measure their value, situational influences can be used the following methods:
- Introspection - try to imagine yourself in the place of the buyer;
-retrospektsiyi - survey customers that contributed to the purchase of goods in the past;
- Prospecting - survey customers about how they want to make a purchase;
- Ideas - consumer surveys as they imagine the perfect purchase process.
An important aspect of constructing a model of consumer behavior are determining factors of external influence. First place among them is occupied, of course, tools and methods of marketing policy, including price, product, communication and distribution. This group includes factors as socio-cultural influence, namely:
- Culture - a set of material and spiritual values, ideas created by society for their development, moral requirements that are to the human component of habits and skills that are in her daily behavior, life, relationships with others, and to use artefacts ;
- Subculture - religious, ethnic, racial, national subgroups within the overall (national) culture;
- Social classes - a relatively constant and homogeneous social groups that bring together people with similar interests, values, behavior and lifestyles;
-referentni group - a collection of people who can influence the position of the consumer (parties, religious organizations, clubs, community, friends, employees). This applies to some prominent personalities, character, career or lifestyle which the average consumer often relies on self-assessment or a source of personal standards;
- Family: composition, role of individual members, the decision-making purchase.
In the process of marketing research biggest difficulty facing while studying the factors so-called black box customers. Among them are not only already known to us, needs, values and wishes (section 1.3), but also such as:
- Motivation - factors that encourage people to specific actions to meet needs;
- Psychology of personality - a set of distinctive psychological characteristics of the person, which makes it relatively constant and consistent ~ response to the impact of environmental factors;
- Lifestyle - a form of human existence in the world, which is reflected in its activities, interests, opinions,
- Perception - the process by which a person selects, organizes or interprets information to create a coherent picture of the environment;
- Risks - higher probability of negative evaluation by man made her purchases;
- Orientation - potential willingness person appropriately respond to the action of factors of the business environment;
- Emotsiyi- pleasant or unpleasant feelings, psychological arousal that affect perception, performance and consumer behavior;
- Cognitive dissonance - the contradiction between the notions of consumer goods and its genuine quality that appears after the purchase.
Essential in the system of marketing research is an analysis of the competitive environment and competitors.
Competition - inherent in commodity production competition between> separate business entities (competitors), interested in creating the most favorable conditions for production and marketing of goods. Classification of the main types of competition shown in Table. 9.
According to the theory of Porter analysis of the competitive environment appropriate to the actions through the study of its five forces (Fig. 14), such as:
- Potential competitors - businesses that may appear on the market and start fighting for customers with existing businesses here;
- Suppliers - companies that sell consumer products companies, industrial and technical purposes necessary for the production of these consumers;
- Customers - businesses and end users who are interested in the purchase of goods (services);
- Substitute products - products of other industries that can replace goods because Functions for the same consumer groups;
- Competition in the industry - available in the market overall competitive situation, determined the number of enterprises-competitors, the ratio of their strength, growth industry conditions differentiation of others.
The analysis of competitors Enterprise includes an assessment of their strengths and weaknesses and possible reaction to the actions of a competitor (Fig. 15).
Competitor Analysis company can carry on the following schedule:
1) as competitors in the company and who they are;
2) the volume of production, market share;
3) What is their competitive strategy;
4) the main factors of competitiveness of competing products;
5) practice of companies competing for advertising, sales promotion, product items;
6) packaging attracts competing products;
7) the level of service competition;
8) distribution and marketing practices in the competition;
9) competition chances of success;
10) as competitors respond to possible strategic moves other competitors to changes in the business environment;
11) what they want to achieve competitors;
12) possible measures to prevent countermeasures competitors.