Algorithm planning new products
Planning products - a systematic decision-making on all aspects of the development and management of enterprise, including brand creation, packaging systems, sales, service and so on. There are three ways of planning products:
-uzahalnenyy - determine what benefits will the consumer goods, its main idea and purpose of use;
- Concrete - determination of the physical nature of the goods, its characteristics (size, weight, reliability, color, efficiency, capacity, etc.);
- Extended - the definition of everything that is the image of the product and the order of service (technical advice, guarantees, conditions of return, etc.).
According to this distinction, and three levels of product creation:
- The goods on a plan - it is stated and the benefit to be received by the consumer from the use of the product;
- The goods in real performance - here define the quality, range of properties and characteristics specific design, brand name;
- Goods with reinforcement - is planned not only to a specific product, but also the conditions of its installation, delivery, commercial lending, service, warranty service.
Specific planning new products can be divided into eight phases (Fig. 32).
In the first phase defined goal of developing new products. Typically, they are developed and implemented in accordance with the market (providing relevant market share, penetration into new markets or segments of the enterprise software innovator image) or internal enterprise needs (providing revenues and profits, capacity utilization or own channels). The purpose of this phase is to define the markets for which developed this product and its strategic role for the company and consumers.
According to a specific purpose in the next phase under development (generation) ideas. For the majority of businesses in developed economies to generate ideas for new products - is a constant search for such ideas, the creation of appropriate systems and methods of selection and accumulation.
Now known quite a number of methods for developing ideas for new products. The most common ones are:
1. Survey consumers, agents and employees of the company. This survey is carried out service marketing research company. In this system, special incentives submission of the proposals, enhance intellectual activity of the respondents.
2. The method of Synectics - use analogies from other areas of life, of nature.
3. "Brainstorming" ( "brainstorming") - meeting with 6-8 people (experts in marketing and other employees), whose purpose is to find ideas for new products. One of the main features of brainstorming is that criticism of the proposed ideas are not allowed to not constrain creativity of the participants. In addition, there are stimulated in a certain way so that they expressed the most original, even fantastic ideas. Brainstorming is a classic, anonymous (unknown individual experts), constructive (development of design ideas), destructive (development of destructive ideas), such as "and", in the form of creative collaboration and others.
4. Monitor the activities of competitors. This method makes it possible to identify the facts the success or failure of competitors, analyze their causes and further, making appropriate adjustments, creative use of this information in their own company.
5. The method of control questions involves drawing up the list of questions as to, for example, can be improved in a particular product or service. Such questions are offered to answer the panel.
6. Morphological analysis - a selection of the most important parameters of goods (eg, shape, material and packing capacity) and study all the possible relationships between them.
7. The method combinations - comparing several products in order to find the relationship between them and the new product.
Many ideas and new products appear as a result of studying the needs of process technology, demographic changes and factors t. N.
The main objective of this phase - the creation of a sufficient supply of ideas for the next selection of the most effective, and efficient.
Ideas for new products require careful selection (filtering) and assessment of their capabilities and prospects of implementation. This can be used criteria related to:
- Markets - capacity, tendency of increase, market potential, market conditions, seasonal fluctuations, the state of competition, the behavior of competitors, market segments, existing demand, consumer behavior, social and political risks;
- Products - intensity consumption, range, patent protection, the possible duration of the life cycle, the degree of technical complexity and emotional impact on consumers; quality ratio "quality-price";
- Manufacturing - the state procurement market, the volume of capital intensive, investment, timing of completion of the main stages, there may be difficulties financial and human nature, the ability to design and technological problem solving; state production base;
- Promotion and marketing - profitability, profitability, distribution systems 1 status, relations with trade, experience their own trade system, the costs of promotion.
Selection of the most attractive and naysvoyechasnishyh new product ideas can be done through their Grade (tab. 15). If the idea of ranking will be more than 85 points - the idea is considered very promising from 70 to 84 - interesting, from 55 to 69 - one that requires study, less than 54 - an idea rejected.
According to foreign data to create one type of product that will be a commercial success, it is necessary to consider an average of 60 ideas (in the pharmaceutical industry - ten thousand). At the same time 5% of the entire cycle of development and selection of ideas that is used to discuss ideas and leave 15, 10% - to post a 5-6 promising ideas, 60% - to weed out three ideas. For the next planning phase of new goods leaving one or two ideas.
In the fourth phase of planning products under development and test their idea, that is elaborated version of the ideas expressed understandable and meaningful to the consumer concepts. Often the use of the written product description, drawings, models, sketches and more. In this stage the main idea is to try to determine consumer attitudes to the concept of goods possible number of those who will use it and for what purpose.
The main criteria for product verification plan are: - communicate - whether consumers understand the benefits and use of product or see it clearly;
-dovira - whether consumers believe that this product will contribute to the solution of their problems;
- Consumer gap - or satisfies a need in the production of the product is the other suppliers of products for industrial purposes;
- Value for value - or responsible in terms of consumer price new product its real value;
- Use - how consumers use this product.
One of the most important planning phase of new products is the development of marketing strategies. It was last tested advisability of investing in the creation of a model sample or trial batch of products, and above all cost of production and marketing of goods. Widely used and easy way of an analysis of return (r) and profitability (R) product.
To determine the cost of production and sales of a new product and assess business risks, the value of investment required, the possibility of producing so many products that will ensure the passage of the hurdle and obtain the necessary income, tentatively determine the level of prices.
No less important at this stage is also positioning product - its placing on the market such as that in the minds of consumers for quality characteristics and beneficial properties of different businesses. In other words, a new product the company should take its position in the competitive environment.
The basis of positioning is the policy of differentiation, ie the creation of profitable types of consumer goods as compared with other competitive offerings. The most common types of goods such differences are:
- The most important consumer characteristics (positioning attributes);
- The benefits of which will have consumers goods (positioning an advantage);
- Match the characteristics of the goods using his methods (using positioning);
- The measure meet the needs of specific groups of consumers (consumers positioning);
- A measure of excess goods characteristics of goods, competitive rents (positioning competitors);
- The ratio of "quality-price" (positioning extent provided good product on consumer spending).
Positioning is carried out by building so-called perceptual maps (from the Latin. Perceptio - understanding, perception). To build on this coordinate system are two important characteristics of the goods, laying on the axes of the system value of the selected consumer characteristics. According to the marketing department map filled commercially available product offering. According to the survey determined temporarily empty seats, but those where the user would like to see the goods. The final step is to choose space for their own product offering.
In the phase of development of marketing strategies are established as indicators of possible sales volumes, market share, analyzed the possibilities of production and marketing, legal review carried out. Then proceed to the immediate development, that transform ideas into concrete physical form. The main result of this phase is to create a prototype.
I must emphasize three important features of it, namely:
- Semantics - transmission (communication) product its primary objective visual and concrete (such as shape and color of the truck must embody the image of his power and reliability);
- The visible metaphor - an attempt to make the product more attractive and expressive than it actually is (eg, use of appropriate dyes and fillers in food);
- Visual imagery - underlining the main function of the goods (eg, dynamic form the radio should transmit feeling of great strength of sound, which he can play).
The phase of product development aims, among other things, the creation of brand packaging, labels and accompanying complex servants continue one (service).
Brand - name, symbol, time, drawing, color, shape or their combination, are used to identify products and their differentiation from competitive offerings.
The following types of marks:
a) brand name (brand name) - part of the brand, which can pronounce (words, letters, phrases). For example, Slavutych, BMW, Pravex-Bank, etc. ;
b) branded (brand) mark - logo, design, color, etc., of the brand, which can be visually identified, but you can not pronounce;
c) the product (trade) mark - the mark or part of that provided legal protection.
Successful brand not only meet functional expectations of consumers, but also becomes their added value by meeting the psychological needs.
Sometimes successful brand allows even repeated increase in the prices of goods to its actual level. This phenomenon is called brand equity.
Brand equity - is the amount of additional cash flows that arise because consumers know the brand enterprises trust her.
There are levels of brand creation:
- The only trademark (single brand for all company-catalog): Phillips, Mazda, Mercedes-Benz;
- Individual brand names (each product has its own brand);
- A combination of brand names and individual: Nescafe Gold, Nescafe Classic;
- Group brands (one brand for product groups): Corporation Matzushita National, Panasonic, Technics, Quasar.
When choosing a brand, take note:
- First, the title should indicate the features and benefits of the product ( "Finance and Credit" TV "Electron");
- Secondly, the name is well remembered, be unlike the others and positively perceived (company Xerox, tape Soni);
- Thirdly, the name must conform to the image of the company or product. That is why the brand PCs Apple ( «Apple") was recognized by consumers even if the product itself was not widely known. The name is a marketing genius consider finding, providing high-tech products associative features of home comfort, safety, so what people are used to from childhood;
- Fourth, the name can not be subject to any legal constraints;
- Fifthly, the name must be unique (not contain double meaning).
Assess whether the brand is successful or not, you can answer the following questions:
or failed to mark "win" a large share of the market (segment) or distribution channel;
Does the brand of the establishment of high prices, ensuring high profits from the sale;
- Keep the brand or its position in terms of "market share" and "profit" in the case where the market will go competitive counterparts.
Packaging - On the one hand, a tool that keeps the product from damage, promotes the rationalization process of its transportation, storage and sale, and on the other - a key element of the marketing mix. For the latter, the usefulness of packaging for consumer convenience is information (packaging is a carrier of information about the composition, character, shelf life, product operating conditions) and protection of goods from environmental influences. Packaging is also a useful complement to the status of the goods (luxury packaging enhances his image is a symbol of life, prosperity, success in life buyer).
Recently, the role of packaging has increased significantly. This is due to the development of self-service customers in commercial establishments, increasing income consumers, enterprises attention to their image, increase technical capacity production of various types of packaging.
The process of creating the package usually consists of several stages. First, develop a concept of packaging, ie define its role, principles and functions in respect of the goods to be placed in it. Next, decide on its design (size, shape, materials, information, text, etc.). Based on its purpose, and in view of the processes of transportation and warehousing of goods and the legal restrictions (if any) factors that affect the look and package design can be considered are:
- Weight and volume of the goods;
- The level of adjustment to packaging means avtomatyzatsyiyi mechanization and transportation and warehousing of goods;
- Climatic conditions of transportation and storage of goods;
- Catalog sensitivity to the effects of the environment;
- Existing transport legislation.
The development package design requires an examination of the terms of trade in goods for which it was created. This is necessary in order to understand how a product will look on store shelves among other products, as it will think buyers and sellers.
Effective packaging - a balanced mix of brand, product slogan, information about it, artistic elements, colors and shapes. The designer must create a package it look to the buyer by visiting the store, packaging recognized at a glance, easily found a her.
In many countries, the appearance of packaging, as stated, is subject to relevant laws and regulations. It is also necessary to consider the designer in the design. German Association for rationalization package are developed, such rules:
-teksty packaging and illustrations must be clear, unambiguous, consistent with the nature of the goods, the buyer not to create a false picture of the quality or quantity of goods contained in the package;
- Information on weight, volume or number of packed product should be placed so that it was clearly visible;
- The weight and number of units of packed product must be rounded as possible;
- The price of the package should be indicated clearly and legibly;
- Control of the completeness of the goods and the term of its use requires mandatory special instructions on the package;
- Manufacturers must take all possible measures to reduce the cost of product packaging, compliance with government and other regulations.
The final stage of development is its package testing. For this purpose:
- Engineering tests - mechanical tests;
- Visual tests - to check the readability of text, harmonicity colors;
-dylerski tests - Determination of attractiveness, ease of use;
- Consumer tests - assessment of response of consumers.
Label - a "calling card" of any product. Its main function is to identify the goods, a brief description of the goods, its shape, size, etc., to promote products. The main requirements for the label are:
- Brevity and conciseness, but at the same time the adequacy of information for meaningful "first" to the goods;
- Attractive appearance;
- Effective identification of the brand.
When developing a package of supporting services seek answers to the following three questions:
- What services to offer customers products;
- That service level (volume and quality) should be;
- In any form offer these services to customers and at what price.
The phase of product development aims to not only build a prototype, but also conducting special studies of consumer characteristics and their compliance with standards and expectations of consumers.
Often, taking into account the importance of such measures to allocate a separate phase - test marketing.
Test marketing - a real product presentation to potential customers through real sales to determine what and how they buy. Test marketing studies tastes, is testing the use of products in small groups of potential consumers, predicts its success or failure in the market. Often new products later modify, improve, then again to offer "on trial."
One of the most important ways to check promising, new products is the use of so-called market test, ie sale of new goods in limited quantities in specific small regions (places). Simultaneously, the study of the behavior of customers, measuring the dynamics of sales. Example of typical results of market research tests and conclusions from this are given in Table. 16.
For long-term market success is especially important goods repeat purchases. That it is the basis for making marketing decisions.
The use of market testing needs, but expensive. It is difficult, moreover, is the selection of proper market analysis and synthesis of the results.
In addition, during the trial sales company plans on introducing new products to the market may become known to competitors, which increases risk. In this connection it is necessary to follow the following principles:
- Innovation should be based on long-term target and strategic planning;
- The size and structure of the company, as well as available financial resources should promote innovation in life planned;
- The company must have a sufficient number of "know-how" to use different technology and different target markets;
- The need to quickly identify and respond to their need to continuously exchange information with potential customers and experts;
- Innovation enterprises are significantly different from competitors' offers.
Driven by innovation market is always more successful than those that are the product of technical and scientific progress as such progress often not combined with detailed research of consumer needs, that is often the "production out of the market."
The last phase of the planning of new products - deployment of production and marketing. Here we must take into account the fact that the growth rate and the actual level of sales of new products depends on their adaptation to consumer behavior. One of the main aspects of this behavior - the process of recognition or rejection of new products. Models of these processes is shown in Fig. 34.
The most used today is a model of Rogers (Fig. 35). The initial terms of this model is to study the experience of the former consumer knowledge of their real needs and problems, the firm's ability not only to innovate, but also to take account of relevant social norms.
Another aspect of good planning - the time during which the adaptation is a new product on the market.
To reduce costs and measure risk in this phase of planning new products most commonly used method of "regional presentation" is consistent implementation of such goods in different regions using the appropriate marketing tools that had been scheduled or modified after test marketing. The fundamental problem here is the harmonization in time and production planning of complex marketing communications. Even the most intensive advertising campaign does not reach its goal if the advertised product lacking in trade. Meanwhile placed on the market and the product does not attract the attention of consumers, if its advertising began too late.
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