Today advertising is most effective, therefore, the most widely used means of influencing consumers in the process of marketing communications. At the same time is not easy to find a definition that would disclose the essence of what in theory and practice is called advertising. As with marketing in general and advertising, there are many different definitions.
Therefore, based on the characteristics of the advertising, we note that advertising - is a paid form of arbitrary non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods and services through the media.
The main objectives of advertising are:
- Creating and maintaining a high level of popularity of ideas, goods, services, etc;
- Improving the image of the company and its products;
- Maintain appropriate attention and interest of consumers, their willingness to act in order to purchase products.
Depending on the facilities of advertising distinguish advertising products (ideas, goods and services) and advertising companies (organizations, parties and some prominent people). Depending on the purpose - advertising informative (especially important during the withdrawal of goods on the market, the formation of primary demand) perekonyvalnu (especially important during the growth of demand for products, the expansion of its production and marketing) nahaduvalnu (very important at the stage of maturity of goods) pidkriplyuvalnu (used to reduce cognitive dissonance, that doubt about the correctness of the consumer choice of goods) and the promotion of the "face of the company" (its solidity, quality, high cost of production underlines the status of the company, its reliability, progressiveness, stability). Classification of advertising depending on its purpose and performed her functions shown in Table. 22.
Advertisement costly, can be quite unexpected and undesirable consequences, so it must be carefully planned.
The basis of the program of development and promotion is the marketing strategy of the company. This is because, on the one hand, advertising is an important part of this strategy as part of marketing, on the other - it is a factor in its successful implementation, now achieving their goals.
The starting point of decision-making in advertising is the identification of the target market, that group of people, which will be paid advertising. We are talking primarily about learning motives of purchase, product selection criteria, values, frequency of purchases, residence customers, their interests, lifestyles and under. Understanding the target market is very important because it will determine the text orientation treatment, choice of media advertising soundness, feasibility spending.
Based on the characteristics of the target market, its main characteristics, the next step is determined targets advertising. These objectives include:
- Inform consumers about the presence of the company or its products, events taking place in the market, the suitability of products for effective solution of certain problems of consumers;
- Stimulate trial purchases of products, the formation of primary demand on it;
- Positioning, proper formation of its image;
- A system of consumer perceptions about this product or company;
- Store information about the product, its quality characteristics, features and benefits in the memory of consumers;
- Increasing and stabilization of volume of sales to end users;
- Increased interest in trade for this product, increasing its volume of its purchases.
There are several requirements to be followed in determining advertising purposes:
- Firstly, advertising objectives should be defined for a specific market, that particular group of consumers;
- Secondly, these goals should be achievable and appropriate to measure (eg, planning advertising information, are aimed at spreading information about the product, such as among seventy per cent of the target market of consumers);
- Thirdly, advertising objectives should define only a specific period (month, quarter, year).
Compliance with these requirements allows not only effectively measure progress, monitor program advertising, but also a high level of efficiency.
The objectives of advertising is the basis of calculation of its budget. For this calculation uses the same methods as for budgeting marketing communications in general. But budgeting is more focused and specific. Thus, the advertising budget primarily focused on its goals. When used at its information is broad and well-founded, then budgeting is based on the impact of advertising functions. This function describes the relationship between input (for example, estimates for advertising) and output (for example, the popularity of the product or the company) factors.
The formula allows calculation of the amount of advertising costs (A), which is required in order to increase the time T sales on the value of AS for sales of real S and the level of market saturation this product M.
The next budgeting decision on advertising is working out the text of the advertising appeal. You must first formulate his main idea that should be relevant to the target audience, to emphasize the specific benefits that advertised.
Working on advertising appeal, should be considered and how it should be - or informuvalnym transformuvalnym. Informuvalne advertising appeal heralds the product or business, highlighting certain features of their functionality. Transformuvalne appeal connects product with such psychological elements of its perception (eg emotions) with which it is otherwise not be associated.
The main problem processing advertising appeal - the transformation of its main ideas into words, symbols or illustrations are attractive and meaningful to the target audience. No wonder the famous British writer Aldous Huxley once said that it is easier to create a decent ten sonnets than good blurb, and advertising - the most interesting and at the same time the hardest modern literary form.
Developing text advertising appeal must follow certain rules. First of all it is important to find a proper stylistic form. Its options are:
-zarysovky from nature (characters use the product in a familiar environment for them);
- Special emphasis on the lifestyle (explanation of how the product is in harmony with a particular way of life);
- Creating fantasy environment (the halo of romanticism, mystery around the product);
- Create a mood or image (beauty, serenity, concentration, courage, etc.);
- The use of modern musical forms;
- The use of symbolic character that represents the product;
- Emphasis on technical and professional experience of the consumer;
- The use of sources, credible and demonstrating goods;
- The use of data of a scientific nature that emphasize the benefits of the product.
Advertising appeal usually consists of two parts - informuvalnoyi and perekonuvalnoyi buyer and a call to action. This call appeals to provide appropriate human feelings: fear, sexual feelings, humor, dignity, patriotism and so on. So, turning to fear, consumers are convinced that the purchased goods can prevent certain negative phenomena. Thus advertise such services, insurance agencies, medications, some household items. Promote a perfume, usually appealing to sexual feelings, convincing the consumer that the product will enhance its attractiveness in the eyes of the opposite sex. Appealing to the sense of humor, showing that the product is "ridiculous", and therefore more attractive than competing products.
Developing text advertising appeal, consider the following. Printed Promotional messages are easy to read. To do this, they can not be too long sentences, many words, too many punctuation and paragraphs. Such requests should be headline that promises something, reports, offers, determines or confirms. The text must fit competitive, confirmed the facts call for this important target audience. Printed advertising appeal should be assigned to a certain type of personality, avoid cliches ( "clichés"), proverbs or idioms, as they may be confusing (especially foreigners). It should be based not on emotion but on facts that allow for feedback (indicate the contact telephone numbers, addresses).
Often printed advertising appeal, accompanied by images. In this case photography is better than the picture. Images must be accompanied by a short text underneath. Large text is required only when the products are technically complex and require detailed description.
Television advertising appeal should also be concise (duration commercials - no more than thirty seconds.) And understood immediately attract the attention of the audience, constantly repeating the name of the brand or company. Given the brevity of advertising should contact the address vmishuvaty only the main argument in favor of what is advertised.
For radio advertising appeal, except brevity and clarity, it is necessary to provide music that attracts attention and remembered, and with it a memorable brand or product names.
The choice of media advertising made taking into account their strengths and weaknesses (tab. 23). Choosing media advertising, we must agree on two opposing objectives: to maximize the attainment of the desired objectives and minimize costs.
Choosing media advertising, guided by the following criteria:
- Coverage - the number of people, which gives the effect of a particular carrier;
- Share - percentage of families that have enabled timely TVs or receivers, adjusting them to the specific assignment;
- Frequency - number of cases where the consumer experiences of voice;
- Great point rating - reach multiplied by frequency;
- Cost per thousand - the cost of advertising divided by thousands of individuals or families who have been advertising exposure.
The next stage of decision making on advertising - advertising scheduling. It developed on the basis of the factors rotation, frequency, rate of forgetting, seasonality and expected environmental changes.
Rotation - frequency of occurrence in the market of new buyers who want to buy the product. What is rather rotation, the intensity should be much interest is attracted advertising schedule.
Frequency - the frequency of purchase. What is more likely to buy a product, the less need to advertise.
The rate of forgetting - the time during which the user forgets product if you do not see or hear his ads.
Seasonality - frequency of purchases and consumption of the product throughout the year. For seasonal products develop special seasonal graphic advertising.
There are two main types of advertising schedules. One of them - stable (uniform). It is used when the dynamics of demand and seasonal fluctuations have significant value. According to the advertising carried out at regular intervals during a predetermined period. Another type of graphic advertising - throbbing. According to him, the greatest intensity of advertising takes place at the beginning of the season, at gradually decreasing further.
Before mass advertising advertising must protest. There are testing methods of advertising.
Testing using the "portfolio" ( "folders"). It is used to check the text of the advertising appeal and strength of the emotional impact on consumers.
For this advertising appeal placed with other appeals to the folder and offer the folder for information consumers. His impression of the proposed advertising messages, consumers estimated at appropriate points on the scale.
Testing with the jury. It is used to evaluate the clarity, brevity and clarity advertising appeal. In this case an advertising appeal considers and evaluates consumer group without comparing it with others.
Testing with film (television). This is one of the most modern testing methods of advertising. Consumers are invited to review film or teleroliki. The reaction of the audience recorded using a special electronic device or exploring survey.
There are also purely physiological testing methods of advertising (the study of the movement of pupils, Biotoki brain changes in voice tones, etc.).
Testing advertising allows you to make corrections and move to direct advertising. His company can make their own special forces or advertising agents.
The final stage of the decision-making process of advertising - advertising program evaluation and making appropriate adjustments.
Here, first to find out whether achieve its' objectives identified weaknesses that give rise to the revision process of advertising. This can be used such methods of consumer surveys.
Reviewed via tips. Respondents were asked to answer questions about what they learned about this product or enterprise, seeing or hearing a series of relevant messages for a period of time.
Review unprompted. Respondents were asked which advertisements they remember or what advertising they saw yesterday on television or heard on the radio.
Determination attitude. Polls reveal changing attitudes of consumers to the product after its advertising campaigns.
Definition of interest. Readers or viewers of advertisements offered additional information on the product or the company. Find the most effective advertising that causes many questions consumers.
In surveys, analyze results and sale of goods. For example, if a product is used by newspaper advertising, and the second - through radio, comparing sales results achieved to determine more effective form of advertising.
The study results enables advertising to make appropriate adjustments, consisting in the replacement of advertising messages, media schedules or scale advertising campaign and more.