Personal selling - this individual oral presentation product or service during a conversation with a particular consumer for the purpose of sale of goods.
There are three types of personal selling.
Adoption order - handling routine or repetitive orders for products or services that the company has sold. Here the main task is to maintain and improve business relationships with regular customers, securing them now. This type of personal selling occurs in the case of transactions with simple products or services that are sold at reasonable prices and non tehnichno- or technologically complex.
Receiving orders - the identification of prospective buyers, providing them with information to belief in the need for the purchase of goods or services to increase sales. This type of personal selling takes place in the process of selling tech products, which also needs to cover and service.
Providing sales - identification of prospective buyers, analyze and resolve their problems through the promotion of new products.
This type of personal selling is done using specialized sales agents - personal sellers.
Personal selling process is subject to strict planning. The initial stage of planning personal selling is the definition of its objectives. There are two groups of targets. The first group consists of goals focused on demand, such as:
- Informing - a system of knowledge of existing (not new) product in the target market, familiarize consumers with the new schedule shop activities aimed at reducing customer waiting time, etc;
- Belief - providing the benefits of product on the market, commitment to customers of this brand, their confidence that a product is able to help solve their current problems;
- Reminder - stabilization of sales volumes, maintaining the commitment to consumers of the brand, promoting re-procurement.
The second group consists of objectives oriented image. They consist in creating or maintaining a positive image of the company or its products.
After that the selection and appointment of persons responsible for carrying out the process of personal selling, determine their positions, the calculation of the appropriate budget, choice of personal selling (or presentation approach ambush customer satisfaction). Especially in charge here is the correct selection of personal sales (sales agents). The main character traits of these people should be as follows:
- Honesty: the sales agents who give birth to mislead consumers, create a bad reputation for not only themselves, but also to the enterprise for which they work;
-strong personality structure, positive image, self-esteem, self-confidence;
- Understanding consumer genuine interest in solving the problems of their clients, their ability to listen, ethics, friendliness;
- Developed intellect, broad-minded, thorough knowledge of the characteristics and properties of the products or services offered to customers;
- Energy, selfish dedication, strong personal interest in the sale, ingenuity.
Further determined the sequence and content of the stages of personal selling, determining the number of sales agents and service areas, wage system vendors and their personal training.
Number of sales agents (C) can be defined as follows. First of customers divided into groups according to their share in the total annual turnover of the company. This can be done according to the Pareto distribution (Rule 80 \ 20): 20% of customers typically account for 80% of sales of the company. Another 30% of customers the company sells 15% of its production. The rest (50% of clients) - 5% of such products.
For each of these three groups of customers set the desired annual number of visits to sales agent: for the first group of customers - once a week, for the second - once a month and for the third - once a quarter.
Further, the calculation of the total number of visits per year - PFA (desired number of visits per customer multiplied by the total number of customers), and the maximum number of visits you can make one salesman during the year (B).
The required number of sales agents can be calculated as follows:
Payment of sales agents must facilitate their work, that they receive depend on the results. Under current conditions, this payment is made mostly for such a system. The first part of the system - so-called "fixed minimum" (specific annual or monthly salary, the amount of which depends on the achieved sales agent sales). Two varieties of such payment are:
- Predefined payment, which is guaranteed in any case;
- Payment issued in advance of the remuneration will take place after the summing up of a sales agent for a certain period.
The main part of pay is sales agent commissions. They can be installed in a certain proportion to the volume of sales achieved or obtained while now arrived. Varieties commissions that are set in proportion to the volume of sales is as follows:
- Linear commissions (salesman receives a specific percentage of its turnover, excluding the number of purchases);
- Dehresyvni commissions (salesman receives a specific percentage that decreases with increasing turnover)
- Progressive commissions (with increasing sales commission percentage increases).
The system of remuneration of sales representatives may also include the following components:
- Compensation costs (payment documented sales agent costs that occurred during the sale);
-additional benefits (insurance, vacation pay, sick leave, etc.);
- Incentive payments (bonuses, gifts).
Productive salesman - is a employee time
occasionally downright should improve their skills. Therefore, training of sales agents - is also an important system that is subject to the establishment of the company. The main aspects of this study is the art of selling, the ability to effectively present the goods, practical skills regarding sales techniques, knowledge of consumer behavior and competitors that own the company and products, which will deal salesman.
The last stages of the planning process of personal selling - tracing the course of its implementation, monitoring and making appropriate adjustments. The sequence of the main stages of personal selling in Fig. 47.
In the first stage of the process of personal selling the search and qualification prospects - buyers who can buy this product. In the western practice of trying to work with customers that meet the test MADDEN:
Money - the buyer has the money to purchase the goods;
Approachable - buyer attainable for sales agent (salesman is unlikely to be able to establish business links with the President of the company);
Desire - the buyer is willing to buy a product that is a sales agent and not his competitor;
Decision - the buyer is such a person in the company who has the right and is able to make decisions;
Eligible - the buyer signed a contract with another vendor,
Need - buyer feels the need for this product.
At the stage of the research study above those consumers who could potentially become customers, that is those who feel the need for this product.
Then narrow circle of such customers who ask this product. Last, the most valuable category of buyers - the so-called qualified prospect, ie buyers who not only want, but also can purchase the proposed product. It expects them skillful salesman, preparing a "preliminary approach". Information for the definition of qualified prospects is contained in the commercials enterprises and companies, materials exhibitions, presentations and more. Such information may also be the result of appropriate surveys and observations.
At the stage preceding the main approach is to collect and study information on specific qualified prospects. Everything is important. In the case of a specific person, it is necessary to know its value system, cultural level, political views, skills, and even such details as marital status, habits, health, friends and circle of friends. After then, the next phase of personal selling, you should meet with this person, find it common language, interested in her answer to her question, to prepare the way for the signing. Before meeting with the buyer must be prepared to take great: add up. Plan a meeting, anticipate possible objections, prepare for presentations, to determine the best "approaches" to the buyer. Do not interfere in advance also call the consumer. During the call, you must introduce yourself and your company or business, be prepared to stand up quietly to the dissatisfaction of the buyer, because that might have torn away from urgent work, the conversation back on track, to tell her the reason, interested buyers and most importantly - make an appointment.
One of the desired points in this phase is the definition of character motivation that most affect the buyer and the agent must take into account in negotiations with him. Motivation - motivation is to take certain measures or exercise certain actions. Types of motivating buyers, their advantages and disadvantages are shown in Table. 25.
The third stage of personal selling - meeting. Here the main thing is to create a positive impression to the buyer. This step is very important in the process of personal selling, because the meeting could not happen again.
To attract buyers, sales agents must observe the following rules:
- To create a favorable impression on the buyer;
- To draw the attention of the buyer;
-domohtysya approval proposals made by the buyer;
- Gradually move to determine the needs and requests of the buyer.
The first impression a buyer of commercial agent, as evidenced
some studies have already created the first four minutes, and remains the same for all future communion seller and buyer.
Much here depends on the skills, imagination and quick reaction sales agent, but something that is mandatory. Thus, the commercial agent shall consider:
- Visual factors (check every detail of their clothes and accessories, jewelry refuse to bring down your hair, etc.);
principle- organization and professionalism (be punctual, follow a predetermined issues for discussion have sufficient information necessary for the buyer);
- Fundamental principles of respect for the buyer (correctly pronounce his name during a conversation not too near to it (no closer than 60 cm), both find interesting topic for conversation);
- Compliance and behavior (look in his eyes just do not get nervous, Greet vigorous handshake, smile, speak clearly and not too fast);
- Own position in conversation (to be enthusiastic, attentive to the requirements of the buyer interested in solving its problems, but always be yourself, without self-confidence and familiarity).
Often the first meeting allows only "prochynyty door" to the buyer. In this case, end the conversation on a positive note, thank you for your attention, find prospects, time and place of the next meeting.
Another, and the most preferred option end of the third stage of the process of personal selling - finding a buyer problems that can be solved using the proposed product or service.
The fourth stage of the process of personal selling - presentation. The main objective of this phase - converting qualified prospects for the real buyer, stimulate desire to purchase this product or service.
The most effective presentation is that clearly planned and prepared. To do this, we must first identify the objectives of the presentation, including:
- The original goal (for example, to find out how soon you can establish business relationship with buyer);
- Sightseeing purpose (description of price, service and quality of the goods);
- Specific target presentation (to give recommendations to help ensure that the buyer decided to purchase goods);
- The final goal (get a verbal or written commitment to buy goods).
During the presentation must clearly adhere to its scheme and the estimated time. This is important.
Always, we must emphasize the benefits of purchasing goods and not on its functional characteristics, do not go into the details, based not on emotion but on facts and statistics constantly emphasize the high reputation of the company or organization, encourage questions and answer them, demonstrate their competency and professionalism, civility and respect for the buyer was able to demonstrate the product, giving testimony to its usefulness.
During the presentation can be found on complication - denial customers. But this is a good thing, because on the one hand, to overcome sales agent raises his professional level, and on the other - the existence of objections indicate the interest of the buyer selling proposition and quick solution.
Typically, the objections arise because the buyer or misunderstood some part of the presentation, or it does not believe in the arguments of the seller is not interested in buying goods therefore, denial, generally for the product itself, its vendor, enterprise-producer, service, price or due to the fact that the buyer does not want to make decisions.
There are six ways to overcome the objections of customers.
1. Agree to denial, but to turn it to their advantage. For example, in response to objections companion too high prices can agree with him, but emphasized that the reason is the efficient use of modern materials, high product quality control and so on.
2. "Snooze" objection is to offer a companion back to it later, after discussing other points. This encourages the continuation of the conversation, in the course of which such objection may be inconsequential.
3. Agree with denial and neutralize it. If the opposition is talking really not very important, we can agree with him, but bring it nesuttyevist.
4. Accept the objection that agree with him, inviting him to discuss the details.
5. Strongly reject the objection if it is unfair.
6. Ignore objections where the buyer argues that no significant value or checks (and sometimes is!) Seller.
The process of presentation should last no more than 30-45 minutes. Therefore, controlling time, personal seller must catch the moment, when you can go to the next stage - the end, that is, getting order.
These signs can be nonverbal gestures (facial expressions, shaking his head) re paying attention to the contract or product specific considerations (eg, meditation buyer aloud about the possibility of saving their costs through the use of the proposed product), question on "When can we expect for a product? "clarify the price and payment terms and so on.
There are ways to end a personal sale.
Trial finish. The seller may request the buyer with a question about some aspect of the purchase. For example, "What is the proposed model you prefer?" Or "What form of payment convenient for you?"
The proposed completion. The seller can offer the buyer to sum up negotiations to conclude the benefits of the product or service delivery choices, guarantees or payment.
Immediate termination. Seller "forcing" the buyer to purchase, emphasizing its timeliness as for instance the words: "This is the last instance" or "allowance for sales on credit increased next week."
The last stage of the process of personal sales - after-sales activities. This is the most crucial and the most time-consuming phase because this is where the seller has to fulfill the obligations that fulfill all the terms of the contract and maintain normal business relations with the buyer in the future.
Special attention at this stage should be given to after-sales service, including implementation schedule delivery, verification of functional properties, buyer training to use it properly, promoting warranty and post-warranty service and others.