Marketing policy of distribution and logistics
Today willingness of the company to speed delivery of supplies were in many sectors of the developed countries of the West are very important (if not critical) success factor in the market.
Thus, in the production of capital goods guarantee immediate receipt of raw materials, intermediate products or spare parts to ensure a continuous production process is often more important than price. In the field of consumer goods demand if consumers reduce adherence to a trademark becomes a real danger for the entrepreneur final loss of customers by the irregular flow of products to places of sale.
However, such an urgency leads usually to a disproportionate increase in costs associated with the need to maintain additional staff, build warehouses, inventories increase or accelerate their creation and so on. In this connection, increasingly face the problem of the creation and use of logistics systems division. Such systems are designed to organize the supply of seats to demand only the necessary amount of product, and only at the right time in order to achieve the desired level of customer service by minimizing the cost of distribution.
Logistics distribution is based on four fundamental principles.
1) coordination - coordination of distribution for zbalansovuvannya cost and level of customer service;
2) organization tovaroperesuvannya - adjustment movement of trade flows;
3) accurate calculation of travel costs and saving products;
4) organization of service - the ability of the logistics system to meet the needs of consumers in terms of time, safety, communication and convenience.
The main objective of logistics - optimizing these principles.
For example, considering the relationship between the cost of inventory and transportation costs and general distribution, the graph in Fig. 59 see that as the number of warehouses increases, increasing the amount of inventories and transportation costs are reduced because the reserves are located closer to consumers. Effect of logistics is to find such an optimal number of syllables (in the example of 20), which will provide a minimum total cost.
We must note that the total costs curve reaches a minimum at the point where none of the other two components (the cost of supplies and transportation) reaches a minimum. Instead, at a minimum is the whole system as a whole.
Some clarification needs a fourth principle (service). So, now the main concern of companies is to ensure a sufficient level of customer service yaknaysuvorishym controlling total costs and the state of competitiveness. Consequently, the time - a series of orders (+ requirements definition transfer order processing order + + + load dispatch). Reliability - is the reliability of the company that defined the term of the order, delivery and guarantee exact match every party supplies pre-agreed specifications.
Communication - a two-way communication between the customer and the supplier (firm).
Convenience - a measure of the flexibility of customer service.
For products that do not come quickly, the level of customer service can be defined as the interval between the time of submission of the order and time of delivery of products the company to the consumer.
The main functions of logistics distribution are: transport and processing of materials, order processing and inventory control inventory.
Traditionally, marketing distribution policies are regarded as the management of the flow of goods and services from their places of manufacture to point of use or consumption. However, recently confirmed a much broader view of the problem. The traditional range of logistics activities and decisions also include coordinating the logistics that is necessary to ensure production of raw materials, components, semi-finished goods needed for production (Fig. 61).
The formation of logistics systems affect the following factors:
- The number of necessary initial and final products;
- The number of suppliers of inputs and consumers of finished products;
- The number of points processing (processing) products;
- The interdependence of the supply of inputs and marketing of finished products;
- Factors of the product, cost, risk associated with the purchase, packaging, yield;
- The value (price) of goods;
- Current service standards.