The essence of management and the conditions of its implementation
The world that surrounds us, consists of three components: the inanimate and living nature and human society. Such a characterization environment allows you to give an overall picture of management processes in:
organisms (biological systems);
society (social systems).
Management processes in technical and biological systems is relatively simple. The most complex control processes occur in human society, because they require the management of people, groups, teams, classes with their different interests. People as the main productive force of society learn and use the laws of nature and society in the process of production, distribution, exchange and consumption of material goods. In connection with complexity of people management in this area, there are three types of control: political, economic and social.
Management of social production covers the processes of economic and social management of the economy, industries, regions each level (management of socio-economic systems).
The management of socio-economic system can be represented as the unity of two subsystems: the subsystem that controls and subsystem controlled (subject and object control).
The relationship between subject and object control is carried out by exchange of information. From the control of the subject to the object receives the flow command information. The flow of information to the control entity contains information about the state of the control object, the implementation of previously received commands and responses to commands that have just arrived.
The control system also affects the environment through inputs and outputs of the control system. To the input of the control system is fed information about labor, material, financial, ecological and other factors of production.
In turn, each control system also has an impact on the environment, feeding the outputs of the system information and the functioning of product systems (goods, services, Finance, etc.).
Therefore, for the effective functioning of any system of controls is necessary to consider all the factors, both internal and external factors that affect it.
In educational institutions of the former USSR was studied ' a course of management of the national economy as a whole, its branches, different socio-economic systems, etc.). In this regard, there is a need for clarifying the concepts "governance" and "management". The difference between these concepts lies in the content, forms and methods of implementation of administrative influence of the subject of management on object. Management as a science wluch these components in each case for a specific system of relations of management of production and economic activity.
From the history of mankind knows many such systems — control systems in slave and feudal societies, militarized economy, the administrative-command economy of the former socialist countries, etc. Management is a modern management system that best suits the operation of socio-economic systems in conditions of market relations.
Consequently, the use of the term "governance" is lawful with respect to the General characteristics of this kind of human activity, and "management" — regarding the content, forms and methods of concrete administrative influence of the subject on object of management in the conditions of market relations.
The term "management" comes from the English. manage — management, management.
In foreign and domestic literature we can find many author's definition of management, because of the polysemy of this concept, because there are organizational, functional and personal components of management. So, often under the management understand the management structure of the enterprise, i.e. its hierarchy, and all managers higher, middle and lower levels. This is the organizational and structural side of management.
If the management to understand the current process of implementation of enterprise management functions, it is —• functional characteristics of management.
Finally, management as the art of managing production processes of a specific person is the personality characteristic of him.
Summarizing the various characteristics of management, it is possible to give a definition of it: management is the system of collective labor organization, effective use of resources, concentration of efforts on the continuous improvement of the quality of the personnel of the enterprise (organization).
Prof. V. I. Tereshchenko stressed the need to distinguish between the concepts of organization and management (management). The organisation should understand the structure within which certain activities are carried out. A control is a set of coordinated activities aimed at achieving a particular goal. Organization — a kind of "anatomy" of the enterprise, management of his physiology.
Thus, the management is the current management activities of production of goods or services within a particular organization. However, the organization does not occur by itself, but is also a product of the management, its function. Organizational component management covers organization structures, communication channels, records management, accounting, control, analysis, planning, decision making and organization of labor in the broadest sense of the word. These include optimization of the size of the enterprise, centralization and decentralization, division of labor in the administration, General organizational structure, staffing of employees, responsibilities, authority and delegation, motivation and stimulation of labor.
Cardinal problems of this part of management as a science and practical activities is the problem of optimal use of labour force taking into account the physical and psychological characteristics of a person, as well as staff time.
In connection with the smoke these problems sometimes vilenovych independent direction of scientific research called "management of staff". Personnel management considers the problem of psychological methods for the formation of the team, conduct business meetings, group debates and discussions, prevention. conflict, organization of personal work of managers and specialists etc.
An important part of management is to create appropriate working conditions or the working environment. These include legal norms regulating the labor of workers, specialists and managerial personnel, compliance with hygienic and ergonomic parameters of workplaces, premises and equipment; psychophysiology of work processes and the like.
Management activity is also linked to engineering-economic software production and business processes. It should be noted that in Ukraine the management of all sectors and systems, including consumer co-operation were exaggerated in this direction. Perhaps this is due to the fact that deliberately not carried out training of management and practical management attracted industry experts, which inevitably were forced to rely on an appropriate system of professional knowledge and are mainly focused on engineering economci issues. Only with the acquisition of leadership experiences most of them have come to understand the truth that control production and business processes comes down to managing people, and you need to understand the motivation of human behavior in the sphere of production and management and be able to create favorable external and internal conditions for the implementation of this activity.
Production and business activities of the company aimed at the acquisition of market goods or services that it produces, effective use of the components of the factors of production (labor, raw materials, equipment) and their own and borrowed funds. Accordingly, management can be divided structurally into three parts: marketing, production management, financial management.
Effective management of socio-economic systems is subject to personal overall responsibility for the achievement of clearly defined objectives, which is possible only in the case of the division of labor in the administration and giving managers at all levels appropriate authority and rights to take positive and negative sanctions.
Responsibility is the obligation of a member of staff (Manager, specialist or employee)' accountable for the execution of tasks or operations that are part of his official duties. Responsibility may be General and partial, and it conquete expression depends on the nature of work of the Manager. For example, the responsibilities of the Chairman of the Board of the Union covers the types of work and responsibilities that are different from the types of rsbt and responsibilities of the chief accountant, head of planning and economic Department or the Director of recooperation. Responsibility depends on the position occupied by the Manager. The higher the Manager in the management hierarchy, the closer its partial responsibility to total responsibility for an enterprise (organization).
Responsibility is always personal, although it may be a group. So, group the responsibility for social and economic activity of consumer society bears his reign, for commercial services shareholders and the public — sales Department. However, despite the fact that consumer cooperatives made a collective management should try to establish personal responsibility, remembering the truth: "if everyone is responsible for everything, nobody is responsible for anything".
Part of management is the availability of objectives that must be achieved through hard work. Targets can be set independently or outside the highest level of governance. They should be understandable, clearly formulated, such that they can be realistically achieved and controlled. In the other. case we are talking only about the desires or intentions.
Interaction in the production process or management based on division of labor and tasks between individual employees or groups of employees. Mechanism that brings together separate parts of a distributed labor, management, meaning, in this sense, the coordination of employees and their groups.
In order to control the production or other process, you need to have authority, have the power to do something, to dispose, to utilise a certain freedom of action.
The powers are expressed in the service competence of the Manager and closely related to the liability discussed above. To achieve the goals the Manager needs to have at its disposal a system of positive and negative sanctions that it can apply to a subordinate employee. Sanctions should be based on motivation behavior of a subordinate. As a rule, the effect was achieved through the use of positive sanctions, bonuses, moral encouragement. Some workers effectively affected by negative sanctions — a reprimand, censure, deprivation of the award. So, management is a complicated social phenomenon, which represents a specific activity for a certain category of people in the process of production, distribution, exchange and consumption of material goods and. the effectiveness of this activity.