The historical development of management as activities
Management processes as a special kind of human activity arose from the need to provide focus and coherence in the work of the people. If the individual craftsman, he manages his work, the team of craftsmen requires the master, i.e. the head, which performs the control function. Therefore, management vinilo the needs of coordinating distributed work.
Most scientists believe that in the historical management plan as activities occur during the period of the second major social division of labor — the separation of Handicrafts from agriculture.
In the initial stages of joint activity of people, when this work was quite simple, it was carried out jointly with industrial activity. The growth of the joint activity and its complexity and the deepening of specialization and cooperation of labor arose the need for the provision of management as a specific type of labour activity on the production management.
The study of the history of human development shows that already in ancient times was a large organisation that had a formal structure and corresponding management levels. Only thanks to the existence of such organizations was built constructions of the ancient Incas, the inhabitants of Babylon and Egypt. An example of such organizations can be as the Empire of Alexander the great (later the Roman Empire), which covered a huge area and United millions of people from Asia to Europe.
The leadership of these organizations carried out certain procedures, which included the Emperor, its Trustees, provincial governors, customs officials, tax collectors and overseers of the work of the slaves in the fields and in the workshops.
Forms and structures of governance that have developed in organizations of the past can still be seen today. For example, the organization of modern armies is based upon the principles that were in the legions of Ancient Rome, and the territorial structure of governance was first used by Alexander the great.
Among the modern structures, there are also those that originated hundreds of years ago, for example, the governance structure of the Catholic Church, defined by the founders of Christianity. Nearly twenty centuries, this structure does not change, whereas during this period there were many organizations and institutions that disappeared in the darkness of the past. With the development of production and economic relations in society, control is complicated. However, by the early twentieth century, its function has remained quite versatile. Production control was carried out by the owner of the company and a small group of especially trusted people.
In a slightly different direction to develop production management in the United States of America. In the last quarter of the nineteenth century. in this country arise based management framework, which is now called management.
The causes of modern governance in America can be explained as follows. In the late XIX — early XX century. The United States was almost the only country where in business human activity did not depend on its origin, nationality, status or religious affiliation. Millions of immigrants from Europe in search of a better life have created a huge labour market, where industrious and able man could achieve significant success. The United States government from the beginning of her registration in independent power seriously supported the idea of education for all who wished to receive it. Education contributed to the increase in the number of people who were intellectually able to work in different areas in business, including management. It turned out that the best result is achieved by those that could generate new ideas, including in the field of management. The combination of these ideas and their practical implementation became the basis of management, the management of socio-economic systems in market conditions.
Later, similar processes began to occur in Europe.
In the XX century in most countries there is a concentration of capital, there are large enterprises, trusts and corporations. Control function more expanded and differentialsa on certain varieties of managerial work, which together become "mixed managers", bringing together hundreds and thousands of workers in the sphere of management. In the 70-ies of XX century. in all economically developed countries there is a sharp distinction between the functions of ownership and management functions with capital: typically, the management of production-economic activity of most firms implement a hired highly skilled professional managers who are not the absolute owners of these firms and receive wages in a direct form or in the form of shares of the company's income. This fact is the basis for the Declaration of the XX century. century "revolution of managers".