The socio-economic nature of managerial work and the problems of the scientific organization
The selection of a special public function, the management and accordingly the profession of Manager, organizer and administrator (the Manager) made certain management relations.
In the sphere of administrative relations applied a special kind of human labor, the main professional activity of which is management.
In the analysis of socio-economic nature of work in the field of management you need to keep in mind the specific features of this type of work.
First, the results of work of workers of management personnel not subject to direct measurement, for example, on the basis of production, monetary or physical indicator, similar to how you can measure the worker's labor. The concept of "productivity", "development", that is, the number of products produced per unit time, can be applied only to certain kinds of labor, which can be measured quantitatively (work typist, operator, computers, etc.). The work of the production Manager, economist, engineer, which perform various management operations, has elements of creativity, uniqueness cannot be assessed in terms of performance.
For this kind of work should be used indicator of efficiency, efficiency, which is expressed in economic indicators led or serviced by the employee of a unit, that is, indirectly —in the work of others.
Second, in the field of managerial work dealing with specific items, weapons, products of labor. The subject of work in the field of management are not material and substantive elements of production, and people and their associated information. Collection, peredana, processing this information account for a large share of the budget of working time of managers.
Tools administrative unit is an organizational and computational technique that is used to process information. Product of labor in management is also information in the form of documents, decisions, orders, etc., necessary for the functioning of the governance system and its development.
Thirdly, the labour administration, especially labour leader, specialist, imposes increased employee qualification requirements. Only the period of General and special education this category, not to mention the period of accumulation of experience, skills, abilities, is 15 years.
Fourth, in the management of labour is of great importance, a measure of quality, because low quality labor management can lead to huge economic costs.
Fifth, employees of management personnel has a very mobile character and detailed spatial boundaries. As opposed to working on separate parts of the production managers and specialists are moved around the enterprise, travel, visit other enterprises.
Sixth, the contents of the employee of the management staff comprises a wide variety of surgeries and treatments that differ in the nature of work processes (work with information, making decisions, organization performance), the complexity and qualification requirements (creative, logical, technical operations).
For official signs, all administrative personnel are divided into managers, professionals, other workers.
The content of work of these categories of workers is different and is determined by the processes, operations, methods, relationships in the control system which occur when performing certain functions. For example, heads of enterprises and their divisions is carried out by selection and placement of personnel, direct management of the production process and labour organization of the main and auxiliary personnel, coordinate the work of various artists, subdivisions performing educational functions. The specialists of the management staff carry out the planning, regulation, prepare the information for acceptance of administrative decisions, control implementation of decisions, keep records, etc.
Employees who belong to the category of other administrative personnel employed primary accounting, processing, transfer, registration information, calculating and computing work.
Specific features of work in the field of management define the basic requirements for the organization and improvement.
Administrative work should be organized on scientific principles. The scientific organization of managerial work (KNOPE) provides for the extensive use of scientific methods in various fields of social, natural and technical Sciences in the organization of the labour process of managers, specialists and technical performers. KNOPE should be based on scientific analysis and enable design, systematic comprehensive rationalization of labor management rersonal on the basis of achievements of modern science, engineering, technology management and best practices of labor organization officials.
During the planning KNOPE solves the following main tasks:
reduction (savings) cost of human labor in management, reduction in complexity of management operations and procedures. This problem is solved in a detailed organizational analysis of the causes of loss of working time of employees of the management and design of complex of measures on their elimination; the rationalization of workplaces of employees, technology of performing management operations and procedures; centralization of management functions, or decentralization; the release managers and specialists from technical and auxiliary operations; to improve the level of mechanization and automation of administrative work;
intensification of working processes in the administration of the extension work measurement specialists and technical performers, improvement of administrative regulation, control, enforcement, improvement of ergonomic parameters (working conditions);
the increase in the efficiency and quality of working processes in the machine control thanks to the improvement of methods, techniques and labor processes, training of managers, professionals, technical executives, business relations in the groups of services, departments, level of employees ' satisfaction with their work and moral and psychological climate in the team, solving conflict situations.