Scientific school management: emergence and evolution
For the first time, interest in management as a science, appeared in 1911. p., after the publication of the book by F. W. Taylor "Principles of scientific management". From this point on governance is recognized as a science and an independent field of research. But understanding that the organization can manage systematic and thus effectively to achieve its objectives, did not arise with the publication of this book. Understanding the need for scientific approach to management has evolved since the mid-nineteenth century.
The main force that contributed to the increased interest to management was the industrial revolution that began in England. However, the idea that the office itself can make a significant contribution to the development and success of economic activities, first emerged in America thanks to the research of F. W. Taylor.
The appearance and design of management science as a field of scientific studies was partly a response to the needs of big business, and partly an attempt to take advantage of the technology created by the industrial revolution and achievements of the group of curious people who opened the most effective ways of execution.
The development of management as science is not a chain of steps forward. Rather, it can be described as the development of parallel-serial approaches to management that something matched, but something was different'. This parallel-sequential development of scientific studies because they were focused on the study of control subjects (people, groups of people) and facilities management (equipment, people). Hence, progress in theory. management has always depended on progress in other governance-related areas such as mathematics, engineering science, psychology, sociology, anthropology, and others. The development of these branches of knowledge were given more and more facts for researchers in management and also equip them research methods of related Sciences. This knowledge helped scientists to understand why some of the previous control theory did not stand the test of practice, that pushed researchers to conduct scientific research.
The development of management theory can be divided approximately into the following phases, which are responsible for the emergence and development of certain scientific schools:
1) periodphase (up to about 1900 p.);
2) phase of the "school of scientific management of enterprises" (19Q0 to 1930 in the United States);
3) the phase of "administrative-bureaucratic approach" or "classical school" (1900 to 1930. p., especially in Germany, France, England);
4) the stage of the "movement for the humane treatment" (1930— 1950 pp. in the USA, Japan);
5) modern phase (approximately from 1940 p.).
The followers of each of these schools believed that they were able to find the key to the most effective management. However, more recent studies and attempts to apply theoretical developments in practice have shown that many of the answers to the problems of management was only partially correct in certain situations. However, each of these schools has made a significant and tangible contribution to scientific management.
Peredoza development of management theory coincides with the period of monopoly capitalism. Management of small enterprises was carried out in the time practices on the basis of experience and ability. This experience was passed from generation to generation, however, a significant scientific synthesis and studies acquired. Large organizations and enterprises were only in the state, Church and military spheres. The needs of the management of these areas emerged and the first shoots of management theory whose influence is felt still. The characteristic features of perepisi control theory is hierarchical-pyramidal construction organizations and enterprises, authoritarian management style, thinking, restricted by the Charter or subordination, and other similar remnants. We can say that control theory in peredes was dominated by issues of military administration. Peredoza development of management theory is characterized by the common features for all countries. In Russia, the beginning of this stage laid his reforms Peter.
The school of scientific management. The term "scientific management" introduced by F. W. Taylor, the study of which became part of the school of scientific management, associated with the work of F. and J. Helbert and G. Gantt. These researchers believed that using observations, measurements, logic and analysis of work processes can be improved in many operations of manual labour and to achieve more effective organization of the working process. Methodology of scientific management of labour processes based nacionals the scope of work and identify its main components components. Taylor, for example, carefully measured the amount of iron ore and coal, which a man can lift a shovel. Wife Glbert invented a device called mcronald - rum, which in combination with a camera allowed to determine which movements are executed when certain operations and how much time it takes for each of them. Such information has allowed researchers to review the work operation to remove unnecessary, unproductive movements. However, developed standard operating procedures and equipment, which would be consistent with the anthropological and physiological factors. All this was aimed at increasing productivity.
Taylor, for example, found that the maximum quantity of iron ore or coal can be perakitan, if workers will use the shovel-a shovel with a capacity of 9 kg.
Researchers belonging to the school of scientific management, first drew attention to the importance of the human factor in the production process. They attached great importance to the system of incentives for the productivity growth, developed recommendations on the organization taking into account the physiological capacity of the people, justifying standards, the necessary interruptions in the labour process etc. Key points of this theory was the stimulation of high labor productivity, the selection of people physically and intellectually capable of performing certain kinds of work, and training them.
The merit of Taylor and his followers should also be considered as substantiation of the necessity of administrative work as. the scope of activities of a special group of people who can reach high performance.
The emergence of the school of scientific management was a turning point, after which the management began to be recognized as an independent field of research.
Supervisors practitioners and scientists through research supporters of the school of scientific management came to the conclusion that the methods and approaches used in science and technology can also be used to effectively achieve the goals of the organization.
In our country, actively developed and part of the theory of Taylor, which was connected with the scientific organization of work (MUSIC). In the 20 years of the problems of theoretical development and practical implementation of MUSIC was engaged E. M. Alperovich, A. P. Bruges I. A. Bullens - tion, M. I. Vasil'ev, A. K. Gastev, etc.
Classical school (school of "administrative-bureaucratic" approach). Research authors who were adherents of the school of scientific management, was devoted to questions of increase of efficiency of work directly at the level of production. In 20-e years there was the so-called classical school, which is also called administrative school management or school administrative-bureaucratic approach. Outstanding representatives of this school were A. Fayolle (France), L. Uruk (England), James D. Mooney and A. C. railey (USA) in M: Weber (Germany). These and other proponents of the classical school considered the problems of effectiveness in organisations in a broader perspective, including the perspective and trying to identify common characteristics and patterns of effective organizations.
Perhaps this is due to the peculiarities of labor biographies of these authors, most of whom held high Executive positions in firms in their countries, unlike Taylor and Gilbert, who started his career as ordinary workers. Supporters of the classical school attempted to find universal principles of management, by which you can achieve success of the organization. These principles were drafted by them in two ways. First, they were convinced that developing a rational structure of organization, i.e. by dividing it into divisions and working groups can thus achieve success. Achievement of this direction of research was the selection of control functions, is first carried out by A. Firem.
The second line of research "classics" was the organization of people management. For example, the German scientist N. Weber the concept of bureaucracy did not put a negative connotation, but saw it as an ideal type of organization that allows to achieve maximum efficiency. According to this Theory, bureaucratic management organization should be based on a system of clearly defined rules of behavior of subjects of management, responsibilities, competence of employees, regulation of their work up to detailed descriptions of individual management operations. In our country in this period were laid the foundations of the scientific organization of managerial work (KNOPE), which is largely consistent with the views of Weber. However, the administrative-command system of economic management in General have distorted the reasonable views of the "classics" excessive centralisation and regulation management.
School movement for humane treatment. For the above phases of development of management theory characterized by underestimation of the socio-psychological and emotional needs of the person in the process of production and management. As a reaction to the lack of previous theoretical views, in management occurred for the humanization of relations of production and management. Lack of theories of this kind were "the opposite of Taylorism" when creating a positive psychological working conditions were tried to achieve high performance. However, valuable research aimed at protecting the health of workers in the conditions of production, the establishment of appropriate psycho-physiological and ergonomic conditions as well as the study of the motivational characteristics of people in the labor process. The movement for human relations conceived in response to the inability to fully understand the human factor as a basic element of effective organizations.
Since it emerged as a reaction to the shortcomings of the classical approach, the human relations school, also called neoclassical school. Outstanding representatives of this school are Mary Parker Follett and Elton Mayo. First, Follett defined management as "enforcing work with others." In control theory the famous experiments conducted by E. Mayo at the "Western electric" in Hotor - not (USA), marked a new direction of research in control theory. Mayo found that even well-developed procedures and operations, high wages are not always prerequisites for high. productivity, as did the representatives of the school of scientific management. The experiments showed that the growth of labour productivity is influenced by many factors, among them the leading place is occupied by the needs of the people and socio-psychological climate in the team. Later these provisions were confirmed by the research of Maslow.
Based on these studies, representatives of the school of human relations believed that productivity grows when leaders show concern for subordinates, consult with them, own methods of management of human relations, give them the opportunity to communicate with the leaders and among themselves, create a positive climate in the team.
The parallel development of psychology and sociology, and later socionics and improve the research methods of these Sciences considerably doskonale the study of human behavior in the workplace, which resulted in 50-ies of departure from the school of human relations and the creation of a new direction which has received the name of the school of behavioral Sciences (behavioral school). This school is K. Argyris, R. Linkert, D. McGregor, F. Herz - Berg. If the proponents of the school of human relations focused on the issue of establishing a climate in the team, the representatives of Povedniki school tried to assist the employee in recognizing their own capacity for self-expression in the labor process. On this basis, built the concept of the school of behavioral Sciences regarding the management of organizations to increase the efficient use of human resources.
In 60-ies Povedniki approach has become popular the emergency and covered almost the whole sphere of governance in economically developed countries. As with previous schools, supporters of the school of behavioral Sciences believed that they found the most effective way of solving problems of successful management "on the efficiency of the employee efficiency of the organization."
Theoretical research in this direction in our country is practically not carried out. Most of the work in this direction is devoted to the criticism of the theory as a means of exploitation of workers by capitalists.
The modern phase. For the modern phase characteristic is the use of "rigorous" research methods, which are based on formalization of management processes and are an integral part of Sciences such as mathematics, statistics, and engineering. These Sciences and related areas of knowledge made a significant contribution to the theory of management in all phases of its development. their influence can be traced in the works of Taylor with scientific analysis of work. However, before world war II, quantitative methods were used in the science and practice of management is not enough. During the war in England to manage an effective air defense against raids by Nazi planes were first used quantitative methods grouped under the title "operations research". Later, these methods have proven effective in solving other control problems, and within mathematics itself evolved into a separate area of research called applied mathematics.
Operations research. Its content is the application of methods of scientific research to the operational issues of the organization. The sequence of application of methods of operations research such. In the first stage of FA - specialists-managers set tasks, that is structureswith management problems, formulate a list of restrictions and requirements for the performance criteria of their decision. The second stage is carried out by experts on operations research. They develop a model of the situation. The model usually simplifies reality or represents it in the abstract, which gives the opportunity to better understand the complexities of reality. The simplification of reality by the model occurs by reducing the number of variables after the evaluation of the materiality of their influence on the final result. The number of variables reduces by discarding irrelevant and Araguaney secondary. Therefore, in the model remain the most significant variables.
The third step is to "test" a model by providing a quantitative value changes. This gives you the opportunity to objectively describe and compare each variable and the relationships between them. The advantage of quantitative approach is the replacement of verbal reasoning and descriptive analysis, models, symbols and quantitative values. Of course, models of situations, problems, and management processes is quite complex, so the impetus for the use of their invention and improvement of computers. Computers allowed researchers to build mathematical models of increasing complexity, which are quite close^ to reality with considerable accuracy describe it. Therefore, quantitative methods are an effective tool for scientific research in management, in solving practical problems of optimization.
In our country operations research was used mainly for the development of targets. However, these studies have not always been successful because in the model it was difficult to lay subjective aspects related to the functioning of the administrative-command economy. Today it is a perspective direction of optimization of management in a market economy.