Modern concept of management
For the current stage of development of the theory and practice of management is defining the conceptual approach based on mutual coordination of principles and management tools. Modern concept of management can be reduced to three types (approaches): process, systemic, situational.
The process approach was a significant milestone in the development of management theory and its main components are currently used in the practice of management. The concept of the process approach was introduced by supporters of the school administration, which tried to describe the functions of the Manager. However, these functions were considered by the authors as independent from each other. In contrast, the process approach, as currently understood, is reviewing management functions as related.
The concept (from lat. conceptio — perception) — a system of views on a certain phenomenon, a way of understanding, interpretation of any phenomena, the main idea of any theory.
Control can be viewed as a process consisting of a series of interrelated actions, which are called control functions. In turn, each control function is also a process which consists of a series of interrelated actions. Consequently, the management process is the total amount of all management functions.
According to Henri Fayol, who is credited with developing this concept, the management process consists of five main functions: foresight (set goals), planning, organization, order, coordination and control. In other scientific works on management theory offers a somewhat different set of functions: planning, organization, stewardship (command), motivation, leadership, coordination, control, communication, research, evaluation, decision making, personnel selection, representation, negotiations (transactions). Almost every publication on governance contains the author's list of functions, which is at least something different from those offered by others. Usually this is due to a specific management system, studied by a particular author.
A systematic approach based on systems theory, which was first applied in the exact Sciences and in technology, but in the late 50-ies and in control theory.
System approach to management is not a set of rules or principles that should guide managers, and the General way of thinking and approach regarding the organization and management. The essence of the system approach is to find simple to complex, decomposition of the problem into its component parts, until the simple questions of type: "Is — you need to define".
In the basis of a systematic consideration of management and problems that arise in the course of its implementation, is the notion of system.
The system is some entity which consists of interdependent parts (elements), each of which contributes to the characteristics of the whole. Cars, computers, TVs are all examples of systems. Thus, the system consists of many parts, each of which works in concert with others to create a whole that has the quality not found in its constituent parts. However, the components of the system are interrelated. If at least one of them will not, then the whole system either will not work or will work incorrectly.
There are two main types of systems: closed and open. A closed system has rigid, fixed boundaries, its actions are relatively independent of the environment surrounding the system. An example of such a system can be a clock that operates independently from the external environment as long as it wound up the spring or is there another source of energy.
For an open system is characterized by the interaction with the environment through the permeable "boundaries" of the system (inputs and outputs). Through the environment impact on the system, and through the outputs of the system affects the environment.
Large complex systems consist of parts that can be considered in turn as a system. These parts are called subsystems. The concept of subsystems is crucial for management because it allows you to create within the system the necessary structural units for the needs of administration: departments, sectors, areas etc.
The subsystems in turn may consist of smaller subsystems(parts, elements).. Because they are interrelated, the incorrect functioning of even the smallest subsystem can affect the system as a whole.
Understanding that organizations are complex open systems, helps to find out why each of the schools of administration were suitable for use only under limited conditions. Supporters of each school tried to focus on a particular subsystem of the organization (social, technical or other). No school system approach seriously thought about the influence of the environment on the organization, although this is a very important component of the organization's work. Now it is widely believed that external forces can be decisive for organization, for efficiency, to select certain tools from the Arsenal management, which will give the desired result.
The situational approach. For the above management schools was characterized by the desire to determine the principles of functions of management as a scientific component of the management process. In practice, these principles are considered as art that can be mastered by the Manager based on their own experience, trial and error.
A feature of the situational approach is THAT ITS' supporters saw the direct application of management science is to teach managers of "situational thinking", that is, the ability to assess management and production situation and find ways out of them. Under the situation understand the specific set of circumstances that affect the organization at this time.
The situational approach, the development of which began in the late 60-ies, does not exclude the concepts of traditional school management, behavioural school and the school of scientific management, and involves the integration of the development of them as partial approaches.
With situational thinking is maintained the concept of process management that can be applied to all organizations. However, the situational approach, defining a common identity management process, requires the use of specific techniques to achieve the goals of the organization. For example, any organization should be structured, however, the build-out depends on the situation and may include more or fewer levels of management, to a greater or lesser degree of delegation of authority.
The practical application of the situational approach is based on the fact that the Manager shall:
to own the effective means of professional management, that is, to understand the essence of the management process, individual and group behavior of people, to know the methods of planning and control quantitative methods and decision making;
to correctly understand and interpret the situation, that is, to identify the most important factors and use the most sensitive items, the impact of which will give the greatest effect;
to link specific techniques to specific situations while achieving the goals of the organization in these circumstances most effectively.
Thus, the concept of modern management suggests that at the present stage in the theory of management taken away the rational of what has been achieved in the previous phases of its development.
Therefore, we can say that modern management theory includes elements of Taylorism and elements of the "movement for the humane treatment" and of the administrative-bureaucratic approach. If we consider the current state of the theory of management in economically developed countries, we can note the traditional gravity scientists and managers to a particular part of the theory. Thus, in the U.S. theoretical development and practical implementation of them is based on Taylorism, Germany, Japan, Sweden, is dominated by the views of the supporters of the "movement for the humane treatment". In a particular ratio of these components of management theory is developing in other countries.
The transition of our economy to a market economy, as already noted, caused interest to management, however management activity will be effective, subject to the restructuring of the economy, the introduction of a new system of industrial relations.