Management functions "setting"
If we consider the management process in perspective, it would appear that any company or organization, its current activities, aimed at the future, striving to reach some ideal state. This perfect condition (sample), usually expressed as a set of parameters, with greater or lesser degrees of detail describe the future state of the system. These parameters, final and intermediate, and is the order of functioning of the enterprise (organization).
Thus, management objectives should be understood that the future condition of the control object intended to be achieved by the joint work of the collective organizations (enterprises).
Dedication.— this is the main feature of any human activity. The management of socio-economic systems differ from controls in technical and biological systems that influence the subject of management on object is carried out by setting before the last activity goals.
Some academics and practitioners-managers believe that the enterprise (organization) has one goal, which can be expressed in a certain economic parameter. This, for example, tried to achieve in the course of economic reform, which was conducted in the national economy of the USSR in 60-e years when the sole purpose of economic activity was a profit.
However, the study of practical management experience shows that for each enterprise is a system of goals that includes economic and social, ethical, organizational, technical, prospective and current, public and private, final and intermediate, macroeconomic, sectoral, territorial, etc.
The peculiarities of management objectives provide the opportunity to establish their place in the system of category management:. goals are the starting point for the development and adoption of management decisions and at the same time a means of motivating employees. In his first goal value of control set number of issues on which decisions must be made, and ways of addressing these problems, in the second, provide an opportunity to improve the performance of the work, as beschloss and unwise management is unable to spark the creative passion and energy of employees.
Goals also play a role in the control of the standard against which outcomes for individual employees and the team as a whole.
Goals should be realistic, clear, quantitatively and qualitatively defined, delimited in time and space.
The requirement of reality of the goals means that they must comply with the labor potential employee or team, that is not to be overestimated or underestimated.
Clarity of goals means that they should be clearly formulated and understandable to the team or individual employee.
The goal of the team, as a rule, require their dismemberment, in communicating to individual employees on clear objectives to each of them.
Quantitative and qualitative certainty of objects means that preference should be given to objectives that can be expressed quantitatively or qualitatively assessed in conjunction with the quality of employees.
The disunity of objectives means that each employee or team must clearly know their responsibilities and the contribution they can make to the achievement of targets under their own responsibility. The differentiation of goals is necessary as between individual employees and their groups, and in time, that is, to provide for certain deadlines to achieve goals.
Only subject to the reporting requirements of the goal becomes an important tool in the hands of the Manager.
At first glance it seems that the goals of socio-economic systems are formed exclusively by the subject of management. However, in reality it is not. Goals set by people, but based on the realities of social life. So, the purpose is selected correctly, then when she satisfies the requirements of the General social laws and meet the objective capabilities and level of maturity of the subject of management.
Between the objectives there is a certain hierarchy. The goal of any system that is part of a system of a higher level, you set this last, however, their formation involves the system — depending on the degree of self-government.
So, in the end, the goals are conditioned by social relations. However, moving through the levels of hierarchy of management, the global objective is specified in accordance with the specificity of each socio-economic system. The goal of each level of the hierarchy of control established no earlier than the stated goals at a higher level of management. These goals make up the primary beginning of the formation of goals and subcla of various kinds, covering all the diversity of the system as a whole.
The purpose of the enterprise or its structural unit may be defined autocratic or democratic way.
Autocratic method provides for the determination of target from above, i.e. top-level Manager. This method has positive and negative traits.
The positive traits of autocratic definition of the objectives lies in the clarity of the formulation of their relationship goals at the top and bottom levels of management in providing objectives, adequate resources for their implementation are provided above.
Negative traits of the authoritarian setting goals are insufficient it is tailored to the activities of the enterprise or unit, which is communicated goals, and lack of development of the creative initiative of people who will fulfill its goals.
The democratic process of search targets has the following advantages. First, mobilizing the creative and communicative possibilities of the employees. Second, clearly identified "bottlenecks" in the enterprise structure and organization of its business. Third, is a unity employee goals with the goals of the enterprise or structural units.
The search for targets is carried out democratically under the leadership of the Manager responsible for the activities of the enterprise, organization or their structural subdivision, and includes the following sequence of steps.
The first stage examines the state of the enterprise at a particular point in time: performance, available resources, business development and market opportunities in the area of its activities.
The second stage develops an understanding of the purposes which can be formulated for the future, adjusted and differenciate these views are the primary objectives and harmonize them.
The third phase is the final final formulation selected goals of the enterprise or organization. Formulated objectives should be Bimota discussed earlier.
In the fourth stage, develop action plans, aimed at achieving the goals, i.e. management decisions to achieve the desired condition of the controlled object.
The next and fifth step is to install monitoring points and measuring the achievement of objectives and solutions to achieve them.
Final, the sixth stage is the realization of the goals.
The implementation of the considered stages of the formulation of management objectives occurs as part of the overall transportation management process.
Therefore, the final stages of formulating management objectives seamlessly go into the initial stages following functions of management.