Function of management planning
In a logical sequence of management functions the next place after the function "goal Setting" is a function of "Planning". This place of the planning function due to the logic of human activity in General and the logic of the process of socio-economic systems.
Planning in management is: 1) the specification of management goals in the system of indicators of socio-economic activities of the enterprise; 2) development of strategy and tactics, with a focus on achieving the objectives of management. Hence, the economic-organisational nature of planning. Economic planning is to develop plans for economic activity expressed in a certain list of economic indicators. In a market environment, every enterprise (organization) shall independently establish the list of indicators of the plan for your business activities, based on their objectives and needs management of the enterprise (organization). Economic planning is part of management.
From the point of view of management the planning function is to develop the content and sequence of actions for achieving defined objectives, including those reflected in economic plans.
The diversity plans developed at the enterprises and in organizations can be classified according to the following criteria.
On the subject of planning: planning objectives; planning tools; planning processes.
Depending on the terms of planning horizons: long term planning (more than 5 years); medium term (1 to 5 years); short term (up to 1 year); operational (day, decade, month, quarter).
Scale of planning: overall planning of the enterprise (organization); planning sectors, planning of project (tasks).
In the areas of planning: financial planning; scheduling production activities; workforce planning etc.
Planning in management has three goals: the introduction of the moment of conscious organization of economic activities; encouraging employees "to look into the future", that is, inculcating in them the ability to align daily actions with long term development of the enterprise; the criterion of control of the actual parameters.
To ensure that the planning function has reached the above goals, it must be based on the following principles: completeness, accuracy, efficiency, continuity, flexibility, mass.
The principle of plenitude. Planning should cover all areas of activity of the enterprise, as well as all the stages, actions and operations as business processes and management processes. If you are planning something fall out of the purview of the Manager, it unavoidably occurs in that chain bottlenecks, that is, disruptions or inconsistencies.
The principle of accuracy. When planning is necessary to achieve high accuracy of economic parameters, quantitative and qualitative "characteristics of action. In some cases, possible deviations of parameters, without prejudice to the General course of management.
The effectiveness principle. Vitralit planning needs to be less than the effect that is expected from the planned indicators, actions, processes. Indeed, if, for example, the cost planning of retail turnover in the amount of 1 million rubles will be 20 % D amount, the organization will have funds for the implementation of the process of turnover.
The principle of continuity. Planning achieves its goals when it is not occasionally, but continuously both in time and in space. This principle is closely linked to the principle of flexibility: if the plans are not sufficiently substantiated, then they need to be revised as the dogmatization of them will lead to movement in the wrong direction.
The principle of mass. Reasonable plans can be developed only by bringing to the planning process the employees who will carry out these plans. Attracting future executives in the process of developing plans stimulates the conscious implementation of them, activates the activity of performers, gives you the opportunity to consider the circumstances that may be unknown to the Manager.
Organizational planning has its own tools and techniques that are different from the techniques and methods of planning of economic indicators of economic activity
Methods to organizational planning include: the method of sequential descriptions of operations; implementation schedules; method of network planning and management; method of working of the calendar.
The method of sequential descriptions of operations. The essence of this method lies in the development plan for the progressive implementation of the works, in which each of them is described with the necessary degree of detail. The plan may be made in the form of a sequential list of operations in the form of diagrams or tables.
An example of such a plan, the creation of a joint venture (JV) Union with a foreign partner is presented in Fig. 4.
Progress charts. Schedules provide that, when and by whom must be done within certain deadlines (start and end of work).
A method of network planning and management. The process of network planning is to construct a table of work, which specifies the parameters characterizing the duration and the network, wherein the sequence of operations.
Basic concepts of network planning are
work, network, critical path.
The event is a specific intermediate or final results. The time of the Commission of an event is the achievement of an appropriate intermediate or final goal. Every event except start and end, means the end of any work (or several works) and the possibility of starting another (next) job. Events are depicted in a network graph circles.
Work (action) represent the processes necessary for the implementation of all events, except the initial one. There are three kinds of relations between events:
the work in the usual sense of the word, which is characterized by a duration, a cost, costs of labor and material resources;
the expectations with which they are dealing when the equipment, labor force employed in another type of work. Waiting is characterized by loss of time;
a logical dependence, that is, the inability to start some work before the end of the other. It is not connected with the investment of time and resources.
Mesh (stoven the graph is called a graphical image of the sequence of works.
The critical path is that sequence of interrelated events, which has the greatest duration in time and, therefore, characterizes the duration of the entire operation.
The works table and network diagram presented in figure: 5. Network planning involves a series of analytical operations on-schedule. When analyzing the network establishes a critical path, identified reserves of time in other ways, reducing the number of jobs on the critical path subject to constraints of cost, resources, etc. sets the duration of operations (normal, the earliest and latest terms, the likely time estimation) and the probability of other critical paths.
After the analysis grid (structure), the question of optimizing it. Usually the aim of optimization process is to find a resource allocation for the branching grid that minimizes the total time of execution for fixed resources.
Method the work calendar. Business calendar is a plan of work supervisor or a specialist for a certain period of time (year, quarter, month, decade, week, day).
In practice, the planning of management activities considers the methods used in the complex.