Function of management "solution"
The management of any socio-economic system supposes purposeful influence of the subject of management on production and economic activity of object of management to ensure optimal functioning and development, the creation of normal working conditions and the social needs of team members. This influence is exercised primarily by the development of planned program activities socio-economic system. However, due to the dynamic nature of the production-economic process conditions of the system functioning are constantly changing, which is manifested in the emergence of different production and economic situations, the deviation from a planned program of development of object of management.
Production and economic situations can be envisaged in advance (to have planned) or occur accidentally due to unforeseen circumstances. In any event of a certain economic situation is accompanied by the violation of the relations prevailing in the economy, changes in individual elements of the object of management: manpower, capital stock, technology activities. This necessitates intervention in the course of the economic process, i.e. adoption and implementation of managerial decisions about the situation, which is characterized by certain quantitative and qualitative parameters.
The way out of the situation can be carried out at different times, in different ways and with the involvement of larger or smaller means. All these aspects should be taken into account when developing management decisions.
So the management decision is the cumulative result of the creative process of the subject and action of the collective control object on the solution to a particular situation that arose in connection with the operation of the system.
Management decision in any case is a social act that organizes and directs in a certain direction the activity of the staff, and acts as a tool that contributes to the achievement of the objectives set for the enterprise.
Management decisions as the main means of influence of the subject on object of management:
developed on the basis of scientific knowledge of objective conditions of development of economic processes;
are prepared on the basis of certain principles and requirements for decision;
have a specific technology development and adoption, is built on logic-based human activities;
provide for the efficient achievement of goals. resources used in the economic process;
set deadlines, resources, and time necessary to implement decisions;
I assume the results should be doser - notime when implementing management decisions, distribution of responsibilities, though accountability.
Order management solution has achieved its purpose, it must meet certain requirements: scientific validity, purposefulness, quantitative and qualitative definiteness, correctness, optimality, timeliness, comprehensiveness, flexibility, completeness of registration.
Scientific validity involves the development of solutions based on the objective laws of the development of the control object, which is reflected in the technical, economic, organizational and other aspects of object management.
The focus is in the content management and provides that every administrative decision must have a purpose clearly associated with the strategic development plans of the controlled object.
Quantitative and qualitative certainty. Management decision is intended to influence the object of management and obov jaskowiak the achievement of certain results, expressed in quantitative and qualitative indicators. The quantitative requirement of certainty is satisfied with the management decisions and set specific, quantitative results of the implementation of design solutions. The results are not quantitative measurements, must be characterized qualitatively. For example, a decision aimed at increasing productivity sellers the particular shop provides for the replacement of equipment, improvement of conditions of illumination of workplaces to streamline the regime of work and rest. The result of the action due to the replacement of equipment and, consequently, the mechanization of certain labor operations, can be characterized quantitatively and qualitatively. Qualitative characteristics of measures to improve working conditions for the improvement of work places, revision of the regime of work and rest, however, makes it impossible to determine the possible growth of labour productivity.
Legitimacy. The activities of all the services of the management system related to compliance with different legal rules. Therefore, any management decision should flow from these rules, not to break the rules and act on the competence of the structural units of the management or officials.
The optimality. The requirement of optimality leads to the necessity in each case of this variant solution, which would correspond to the economic criteria of economic efficiency: the maximum profit at the minimum cost.
Timeliness of decisions means that they must be taken at the time the problem occurred, violations, deviations in the course of business processes. The decision cannot be adopted if it is accepted late, the demand for it may fall. Timeliness of the decision also means meeting deadlines for the preparation, bringing to the performers and effective monitoring of performance.
Complexity. The activities of organizations and enterprises of consumer cooperation presupposes the existence of a coherent set of items that covers equipment, technology, organization of economic processes and labor, material, money and other resources, as well as the results of management. Characteristic is the close relationship of these elements. Quantitative and qualitative changes of one of them, as a rule, lead to a corresponding change in the other. The complexity of management decision requires consideration of all crucial linkages and inter - dependencies of activities of enterprises.
Flexibility. Economic activity is a dynamic system that is constantly evolving. Any fully informed decision on the management of this system (especially for a relatively long period) may require adjustments, and sometimes a new decision. Nevertheless, the formulation of each solution must provide a place for the manifestation of creative activity of artists, rational initiative to find more effective ways and means of achieving the objectives.
The completeness of registration. In ensuring successful implementation of management solutions is of great importance by identifying them. It is necessary that the form of presentation of the decision excluded the misunderstanding or ambiguity in the understanding of the tasks assigned to the employees who must implement the decisions, gave the opportunity to monitor its progress, make adjustments.
Solutions should be formulated clearly, concisely. Together with specific objectives, actions to implement it should identify the specific methods and means of performing actions; required resources; the timing, the cast responsible for their implementation; control and accounting of outputs and outcomes; the interaction between performers; the validity of documents that can be obtained about HC^execution, etc.
Content management solutions can be deployed in the functions it performs in the overall management system of economic activity of organizations and enterprises: Scaramouche, coordinaci and mobilesource.
The steering function. Any decision to develop, on the basis of a strategy of socio-economic system, organization, or enterprise that is subject to long-term prospects. On the basis of strategic lines of development, the solution is a specific task you want to perform in a certain period of time.
The best results are achieved in cases when the task provides an implementation of the principle of what is beneficial to a business or organization must be profitable and the individual employee.
The coordination function (coordination). Management decision determines the place of each unit, unit, worker in solving problems, coordinates, and mutually connects all of their actions and the necessary resources in time and space. Thus, the function of coordination and coherence in combination with other measures aims to ensure a clear coordination of actions of the entire workforce, the rhythm of the production program.
Mobilizing (stimulating) function. The task of this function is to provide the most complete activation of individual players or of labor collectives for achieving the decision objectives.
Taking a managerial decision, it is necessary to ensure the presence of all the considered functions. Underestimation of the role of any of these functions in practice leads to a misunderstanding of the goals and challenges facing particular communities, inconsistency in the actions, of lack of initiative, and often to the violation of labor discipline.
Management decisions differ in a variety of forms and contents. Therefore, use different characteristics to group and classify them, highlighting the General and particular features inherent to certain types of decisions.
Depending on the nature of objectives can be identified: promising solutions that establish the basic ways of development of the object of control for a long enough period of time and current that are designed to ensure the achievement of the immediate objectives, the solution, usually private tasks. Among the latest in business practices often occur operational solutions that provide immediate intervention in the course of development of object of management. They basically have the nature of regulation or adjustment deviations in the system due to previously unforeseen circumstances.
Depending on the level at which decisions are made, among them are macroeconomic, sectoral, and intra.
Depending on the scale of the implementation of decision are divided into global and local. Global solutions include, as a rule, the entire facility management (enterprise, organization), a local concern only individual aspects of this system (shop, a warehouse, a brigade of materially responsible persons).
Depending on the nature of the issues raised in the decision, they are divided into technical, organizational, economic and social.
According to the degree of novelty of the solution is divided into standard (routine) and creative (heuristic).
In relatively simple situations, experience, intuition, and sometimes just common sense suggest the right solution. Practice shows that most of the management problems in the enterprises is decided on the basis of empirical knowledge. In such situations, effective decision making often becomes an art and the quality of managerial decisions to a certain extent depends on the individual abilities of the supervisor, his theoretical and practical training, General Outlook and experience.
However, the transition to a market economy significantly changed the nature of managerial problems that are solved at the enterprises and in organizations and increases the economic significance of their decisions: optimizing the decision of those samples of LEM gives greater absolute effect, and the errors lead to large losses; reduced the time allotted for the process of solving those or other problems.
Under these conditions the value of experience, professional intuition of the modern leader felt the need of a proper division of labor specialists in the preparation of solutions, and the use of modern methods, technical means and procedures for the development and adoption of administrative decisions.
The process of developing solutions is carried out by performing management operations that can be combined in certain targeted complexes. At the same time as the complexes themselves, and the operations relating thereto, are executed in sequence.
The target complexes that includes a variety, but at each stage of the management of certain types of operations can be viewed as a system of actions for developing management decisions. The basic requirement which should be observed in the allocation of individual complexes of the operations of the process in discussion is the possibility of obtaining concrete results in the implementation of actions relevant to each partial process — block pdblica. These results relatively isolated and used as constituents of a unified process of preparation and adoption of decisions.
A framework for solutions development is system analysis.
Consider the process of system analysis and development of solutions, which consists of 4 blocks: the elucidation of the situation that has developed, and preliminary identification of problems solutions; structural analysis of the investigated object; preparation of alternative solutions and selecting the best of them, deciding.
Within each block, the following management actions.
First block. It includes the following steps: accumulation of primary information about the object in the direction of its development; situation analysis; preliminary identification of the range of problems to exit from a situation; determine the objectives of decision and parameters that need to be reached.
The second block. Within this block, the following occurs: establish the most sensitive elements of the control object; formulates the problem statement that needs to be solved in this situation.
The third block. The actions of this unit include the modeling decisions, the choice of cost-effective options, choosing the best option; on the basis of noneconomic criteria (i.e. common version) and its submission for consideration of the decision-making body.
In modeling the solution assesses the validity of the model, a solution algorithm are developed based on the model solutions and the system of machine information and software (if provided by the use of computers).
Cost-effective solution choose in this order: set the deviation limits of baselines and resource constraints; performed calculations of the solutions based on economic criteria.
In formalized models of choice of optimal variant is directional shuffling. on the basis of special methods: mathematical programming, statistical modeling, queueing theory, game theory, etc. In unstructured models the optimal option based on logical assessment of all possible options developed.
Selecting the economically best for the enterprise solution, you need to evaluate them from the point of view of non-economic requirements to the essence and contents of decisions. To these aspects of choosing the optimal solution considers environmental, social and other consequences of its implementation. If necessary, the best can be considered such an option, which is economically less profitable, but meets the requirements of non-economic criteria.
In the fourth block submitted for the approval of solution to be discussed, evaluated and approved.
Discussion of selected option should lead the person who has the right of acceptance and approval. After discussion, the decision approved by the head-man Manager or collegial body. The effectiveness of managerial decisions affect the quality of their development, adoption and implementation. There are so many recommendations to improve the quality of managerial decisions the stages of their development and adoption and implementation. These recommendations are multifaceted, because their development was used such scientific disciplines as Economics, Cybernetics, mathematics, psychology, sociology etc. As all the recommendations was not possible to consider within this theme, the main focus of our attention on those that currently brought from conceptualization to practical implementation. Is a matrix of estimates of the effects of implementation of the solution methods of game theory, decision tree, analytical sistematizatsii method, business games.
Matrix assessment of the implications of the decision refers to simple) but illustrative of methods of choosing the best solution. The essence of this method lies in the fact that in a matrix all the possible consequences (both positive and negative) of implementing the solution (events). Efficiency is calculated by multiplying the probability of occurrence of events in its value composed of all the possible events that will occur as a result of implementation decisions. This matrix does not guarantee that the selected solution will be of high quality, because in its preparation can be errors in assessing the severity of an event or the probability of its occurrence. However, the usefulness of the matrix is undoubted, since in the course of this process it is necessary to consider many alternative consequences of decisions. However, these effects are recorded in writing and sistematizirovat.
Methods of game theory. Game theory is a mathematical theory of conflict situations, i.e., in which the interests of two or more parties who have different goals. Game theory considers the tasks typical for military, competition and gaming. the Essence of the decision is to take into account the possible actions of the parties involved in a situation (conflict). In this case, the conflict is considered not necessarily tense relationship between the various parties. In game theory under the conflict understand any discrepancy of interests of the parties. The choice of a decision (behavior strategies) impact: possible actions of the opponent; the quantitative result (win, loss), which will result in a certain set of moves. A strategy that leads to the highest win in the game, taking into account possible actions of the opponent, make a decision.
The optimal strategy is achieved by designing a sufficiently complex matrices. Therefore, in the practical work of the Manager game theory cannot provide practical assistance in solving problems. However, this does not mean that the Manager will not be able to take such a decision where it is necessary to consider the decisions of their opponent. For example, planning marketing activities, a Manager must think over possible actions of their competitors.
Decision tree. Building a "decision tree" is based on the knowledge of elements of graph theory and probability theory and therefore is an effective method that gives the opportunity to investigate the ramifications of problems and solutions, and to better assess the availability of alternatives and the number of them.
To build a decision tree to carry out the steps discussed above.
The decision tree may be one - stage and two-stage. When building a single-stage decision tree, calculated the mathematical expectation for each event by multiplying the value of the event and likelihood of its implementation. The sum of mathematical expectations of all the events one strategy yields a mathematical expectation strategies. When it comes to multi-stage decision trees (where a second event may take place only in the case when the implemented the first), all the indicators are mathematical expectation is obtained by multiplying EV with the product of the prior probability of an event and the subsequent due to the probability of the event.
There are two strategies: strategy A — the offer of a foreign company to organize the manufacturing of its products used the stores the consumer society and strategy B-the proposal the firm will not extend. Chance to conclude a contract or not to enter it 50: 50, that is, the probability of the transaction equal to 0.5 and the probability of failure to conclude it as a 0.5. Income from the sale of products foreign firms equal to $ 55,000., the costs of the preparation and conduct of this operation is $ 20,000.
The result: the expected profit of strategy A "proposal" is 17 $ 500, the strategy Would "no bid" is zero.
Conclusion: it is necessary to put forward a proposal to the foreign firm because the expected profit is a sufficient motive for its implementation.
An example of the construction of a two-stage decision tree.
1st degree: above; 2nd degree: takes into account the possibility of penalties in case of breach of contract with a foreign firm in the amount of $ 20,000.
The probability of failure of the contract — 0,1.
Calculations show that because of the possible penalties, the expected profit is reduced to $ 16 500.
Analytical sistematizatsii method. Effective tool for the development of solutions is the so-called analytic-sistematizatsii method developed by the Americans.
The kepner and Trego. This method includes three components: situation analysis; problem analysis; analysis of the solution.
Analysis of the situation. Situational analysis provided for the situation which inspires action or decision. Analysis of the situation is that with the help of questions to clarify the situation and breaking it down into pdsi - ignorant of the situation. For this you need to answer about the following questions:
What do we really know about the situation?
What we are particularly concerned about the situation?
What else is contained in this situation?
It is possible to more clearly describe the situation?
What other areas affect this situation?
What mistakes we already made?
Often have to make decisions in multiple situations. In this case, you need to highlight the critical situation and first of all to solve the issue out of it. The critical situation with many situations gives you the following options: cost for out of the situation; the time available to exit situations; the development trend of the situation in the future. Evaluation of these parameters is carried out by finding answers to the following questions.
The costs associated with the situation:
The total expenditure?
What is the height of costs (cost level) ?
Is there any direct damages?
How big are the losses?
Who else is concerned about this situation?
Available time (the urgency of the situation):
How much time do we have?
What are the consequences of delaying a solution?
How threatening is the situation now?
Who strongly is interested in the situation?
Trends in the development of the situation:
Which. trend (past — present — future)?.
Became better or worse?
On the basis of which we conclude that the better (worse)?
Analysis of the problems. The problem arises when reality does not coincide with what could be (or what we would like to have). Deviations of reality from the desired (possible) state can be both positive and negative. However, the nature of the problem does not affect the method of analysis. Circuit analysis problems the following.
The definition (definition):
What constitutes a problem, and the object in which it originated?
Any deviation (actual minus reality or fact minus the desired state) ?
Problem description (no):
How much (volume, size)?
What "is" at odds with "no"?
What has changed in particular?
How could the impact of these changes on variations? Perhaps in connection with the features?
If this is the cause, whether it explains the "is" and "no"?
The above-considered scheme for the analysis of real problems. A more complex process of analyzing potential problems, because it is usually to insure the project or plan (decision) against possible surprises (the influence of the other hand, the violation element). Circuit analysis is about the. First, identify the critical parts of the plan (decision), which were studied from the point of view of possible deviations and their causes. Then develop preventive actions and prepare possible actions in case of deviations.
As the demand of these events may occur suddenly (spontaneously), it is necessary to provide "starter" (the key), that is the beginning of preventive (possible) events.
Analysis of the solutions. Analytical sistematizatsii method involved a departure from the sequence of the steps described above. When using this method, the final decision stage is system analysis which is carried out in such sequence.
1. Determine the reason for the decision goal (an intention).
2. Develop target installation, that is, clearly define the subject of a decision; what exactly are seeking to achieve; what measures there are for this.
3. Klassificeret and evaluate target setting — establish goals that seek to achieve their commitment, reality, evaluate the desired goal.
4. Develop and weigh alternatives for their eye and evaluated from the point of view of mandatory and desirable goals, eliminate alternatives if the desired (required) the purpose cannot be achieved. Adopt advanced solution with an indicator of the degree of achieving the goal.
5. Identify negative consequences or risks, evaluate their probability and importance.
6. Make the final decision.
Method of business games. One of the forms of modeling processes and phenomena, which facilitates the development of optimal management decisions, is a business game. Call this business simulation game, which in its content and method of conducting simulates the activities of managers and specialists and provides an opportunity to perform (to provide) a range of reasons (phenomena, factors), causing changes in economic situations.
Business game in contrast to economic-mathematical modeling does not provide "evidence" of optimality of the solution. However, it provides an opportunity to reflect and take into account in development management decisions are diverse, including informal, depending. Application of the method of business games is effective in developing solutions related to forecasting of economic processes for a long term (15-20 years), when it is necessary to give a precise, rigorously proven optimal solution.
At the core of any business is the relationship between the resources and knowledge of opportunities that can be achieved as a result of using these resources. Constructive elements of the model are: players — media model of interest; rules that restrict and direct the expression of interests according to the ideas of the designer of the game about simulated object;
data set that reflects the status and flow of resources of the simulated economic system and stimulating the manifestation of the interests of the players.
The use of business games by employees of the management gives the ability to simulate future actions, to psychologically prepare for the implementation of tasks in terms of possible conflict situations. During the game check and rationalizers the flow of information and direct feedback, develop effective recommendations to improve the functions and structure of the management system, check and increase the level of legal knowledge.