The function of management, "motivation"
The efficiency of production and economic and managerial processes are ultimately determined not only by goals, correctly defined the planning guidance high quality of the developed solutions and reasonable action to implement them, but also depends on the people., which embody the goals of socio-economic systems, implement plans and execute decisions. People can be forced to perform a particular solution a particular job. However, enforcement of them has certain limits, usually defined by the system of joint working and monitoring its implementation.
Modern management philosophy based on the impact on people places not coercion, and motivational regulators, built on the basis of psychological characteristics of a person.
Followers of Taylor believed that the phenomenon of motivation is necessary to understand mechanistically: the monetary unit (extra charge) produces one unit of additional work. And though this has long been departed, however, in science and in practice, still meet the consequences of such views. An example may be a piecework system of remuneration, is quite widely used in practice.
In our time, scientists and practitioners-managers are considering motivation from the point of view of the psychological laws of man, which can be mapped with the laws of nature.
Among the numerous psychological theories of motivation of employees the most practically important are:
1) the theory of Maslow's needs;
2) theory X/Mac-G ' Regor;
3) the theory of two factors Herzberg;
4) "theory of performance" Mac-Klellanda;
5) expectancy theory of Vroom.
The theory mentioned in points 1-4, is considered the theories of content because they trying to explain that the individual or his environment forms and maintains a certain way of doing it. Expectancy theory of Vroom, on the contrary, tries to explain how it is formed, directed, changed or saved a certain behavior.
The theory of Maslow's needs. According to Maslow, human behavior is motivated by certain needs, which can be placed hierarchically in the form..
Maslow and his followers claim that as soon as a member of the organization feel satisfied with their basic needs (e.g. minimum income), it rises above in terms of meeting the new requirements. Satisfied needs do not serve more incentive (motivation) to exert more efforts to work. Unmet needs, on the contrary, (Create a stress state which is generally believed to remove to satisfy those needs. If after a while the employee will see that satisfaction of the need "I", not to mention self-realization in professional activities, makes him expect that he was either experiencing dissatisfaction, or reduce the level of their aspirations. So, a sense of satisfaction, apparently, not always expresses a positive install to work or serves as an incentive to increase productivity, but rather can Express a lack of interest. In addition, the displeasure can be a stimulus to improve the conditions and growth needs and, therefore, the expression of very positive attitudes. The theory of Maslow's needs is Cavan. This assessment is fair because it is assumed that for a person in the process of its psychological development dominated and diverse needs.
Theory X And Y McGregor. In the process of development of human culture and in the history of such Sciences as philosophy, sociology and psychology, often used dualistic portrait of the man, which portrayed positive or negative (good — bad) or pessimistic - optimistic (in growth rates).
The most outstanding representative of the dualistic image of man within the framework of modern management theory is McGregor, who with the help of a pair of opposites (theories X and Y) are extremely easy to understand. describe two portraits of the man, which extremely differ from each other. McGregor came primarily from the fact that any management decision is based on a number of hypotheses about human nature and relationships between people.
Portrait of a man X (theory X) is characterized by the fact that man has an innate aversion to work and tries in any way to avoid it. So most l@ dei it is necessary to control, direct and threat of punishment to make a contribution to achieve, the goals of the organization. Such a person willingly allows a control, avoids responsibility, has no greed and above all wants security.
Portrait of man U. By its nature, this man has no aversion to work, on the contrary, work for her a source of satisfaction.
If a person fully shares the goals of the organization, then it does not need outside control; develops self-control and self-initiative. Most valerim incentive to work is the satisfaction of self and the desire for self-realization.
Thus, a decisive influence on the behavior of the Manager is how he thinks of employees, the portraits of their he has made and what plans to motivate their work. Accordingly, the developed Mac-Grego - set theory can be interpreted as a motivational theory. Theory X (management control) correspond to negative motivation, and applies only to already satisfied needs, leaving aside the higher; theory (managing by motivation) corresponds to a positive motivation for disgruntled higher needs and, moreover, "cheaper", because self-control and cooperation reduce costs of control. In the literature still highlights the theory Z, which can be considered as a binding theories X and Y.
The theory of two factors Herzberg. In 1959 Herzberg and his colleagues conducted a targeted survey of approximately 200 accountants and engineers about pleasant and unpleasant situations at work (can You possibly accurately describe a situation that waiat very dorou or bad)?
Based on the fact that very rarely the same reasons (factors) were named in connection with pleasant and unpleasant experiences at work, Herzberg came to the conclusion that there are factors that:
not give a sense of satisfaction, company policy, pay and conditions of work;
can bring satisfaction — achievement, recognition, interesting work, responsibility, promotion.
Conclusion Herzberg that positive attitude of employees in respect of work have other causes than negative, induced him to abandon the classical concept of satisfaction that comes from continuity of the transition from state "satisfied" - "dissatisfied". The opposite of dissatisfaction is not satisfaction but no dissatisfaction (water which contains no germs, prevent diseases, however, does not make you healthier).
The theory of motivation performance Mac-Klellanda. From an extremely wide range of needs MC Clelland noted the three most significant for the explanation of human behavior:
the desire to achieve;
the desire for power.
The main attention MC Clelland was paid to the desire to achieve and that developed a theory of motivation (achievements). Under the desire to achieve, you should understand enough stable capacity to strive for accomplishments and successes. And though Maslow this need is not expressed so explicitly, but it can be attributed (in his classification) to the needs of a higher rank, if not of self-realization. Before Mak-Klellanda the question arose, why do people with more or less distinct three fundamental needs motivation to achieve is manifested in different ways: some are stronger than others, and under what conditions it is possible to increase motivation to achievements. To answer this question, he studied many individuals with a strong motivation to achieve their manners of behavior and personal qualities. Based on this MC Clelland noticed they have these typical features:
go for a well-designed risk;
prefer a task of average complexity, but such of them which are original content, and require individual initiative and creativity;
concentrate on work (job) themselves and less on staff, do not like pauses in the work;
preference for such situations at work when they can work independently and make decisions;
require immediate feedback, for the time being and those ratings (private and foreign) of the results of labor;
find great satisfaction in the work itself (intrinsic motivation). Money for them has value only as an indicator of achievement.
Achievement motivation is for Mac-Klellanda a prerequisite for successful management. And in fact, he discovered (evidenced by the comparative data of the research at an international level), managers have higher motivation to achieve than for other professional groups with appropriate education, and that managers who have achieved great success respectively have a higher motivation to achieve than those that such success is not achieved.
Expectancy theory of Vroom. The model of Vroom is based on the approach to the problem from the perspective of "path — goal" and is a focused on the psychology theory making, which assumes that a person chooses that alternative that best meets the expected use, with its purely subjective view. The idea of "path — goal" arose from the empirical observation, according to which the work performed by the employee (the path), can only be recognized when this is achieved the desired goal.
Thus, the manifestation of an individual the desire to achieve depends not only on abilities or socialization, but also from the subjective perception of the relative use of result of work to achieve personal goals. This idea is the "means — goal" is developed in theory as a tool. In line with this, the focus is on three concepts: value, tools, expectations.
The value in this model refers to effective orientation on the results of its activities: how important is an attractive value outcome for the individual? There are two levels of results: the results of the first level, for example, rewards for results of work (pay) that serve as a stimulus; the second level results will have certain needs or goals sought by the individual.
The Toolkit is responsible for the expectation that the result of the first level of the particular course of action will lead to the desired objective (result of the second level). The first level result is not an end in itself but a means to benefit from it due to the presence of such quality as satisfaction with the positive result of the second level (needs).
People's expectations lie in the probability that certain actions will lead to specific results. Subjective probability is determined by the fact that with some effort achieves a certain result (the target task) and a certain reward based on the implementation of the task.
Using these model elements, you can define the efforts undertaken by the individual under certain (empirically) the values of the three variables (value, tools, expectations), and this is a motivational force.
On the basis of theoretical provisions, it is possible to answer the question: "How to motivate your employees"? Motivation must come from the fact that you can never replace the motivation of the third-party employee motivation. In other words, internal motivation, you cannot call external. However, the head can be enough to motivate their employees, creating a situational field, which encourages them to do what is expected of them. This field consists of the following parts:
the behavior of the leader in the communications;
demands through setting of goals and objectives etc.
In order to be able to create such a field for employees with regard to their features, the Manager must know the internal motivation facilities to their employees, answering the question "Where and how best using the situation and tasks to encourage employees to action?"
The issue of motivation becomes increasingly important today, primarily because in all cases the performance of work requires mental effort of workers. It is this kind of efforts is subject of motivation.
There are many incentives for the employee to work well, but there is no universal. People react differently to different stimuli, and even of the very people the response is not always unambiguous. A person gets used to the stimulus and ceases to respond to them, so the Manager must possess an Arsenal of incentives and to constantly update them.