The concept of organization
Objective a prerequisite for the implementation of management processes is the presence of the organization within which to carry out this process.
Definitions of the phenomenon "organization", no less than the concept of "management".
However, the General features of any organization are: the many faces or suborganization; General purpose, which are also known members of the organization; overall, agreed with each other the desire to achieve the set objectives; hierarchy ; the formal structure of conscious.
* Hierarchy — generally means the establishment of communication between the authorities.
** The formal structure is the system of rules that allows the member organizations to define their position and behaviour in the organization. Due to the formal structure of a member of the organization knows what the other members of the organization, he can (should) interact to contribute to the implementation of the tasks the nation of action;
the substitutability of the members of the organization; the exclusivity relating to the environment, which emphasizes the special ritual of membership in the organization, the various signs, symbols, titles, etc., available only to members of the organization; vertical and horizontal division of labor.
In this regard, the classical value acquired defining features of bureaucracy, as defined in the max Weber's analysis of bureaucratic state. These characteristics include: the existence of rules of jurisdiction, service hierarchy, the cult of the document, hard
the mechanism of discipline, etc.
So, the organization is a social entity in which the General aspirations of the United many people
the achievement of a common goal.
The emergence of organizations consider the example of a group of people who are on the same basis of trying to solve certain tasks or problems. Let us imagine that such a group is, say, seven people, faced with a specific task. After two or three hours of joint work, an outside observer will notice that this group of people became the first informal organization, which is manifested in the form of communicative relationships between its members: one member of the group becomes the expression of thought, others agreed with him their actions. There is a definite hierarchy— one person becomes the group leader (supervisor) and other members of the organization carry out his instructions. There are other signs of the organization listed above.These features are characteristic of each, even the biggest and organization. The larger the group, the more possible communication links, and the stronger the desire of its members to create a structure with the aim of increasing the effectiveness of communication. If the structures are not, everyone enters into a communicative relationship with others, and soon such a system in large groups will collapse. Structure helps to streamline communication and increase efficiency.
However, the increase of communication efficiency is not an end in itself but aimed at the task solution. Logically, the members of our groups must first of all think about how to divide the problem to be solved into individual tasks and allocate it between group members. Thus, from the first steps of conscious formation of the organization is necessary to divide the task, which is a consequence of division of labor.
However, the division of labor, driven to the absolute (each member decides their own problems, not given separate tasks to other members of the organization), would put into question the efficiency of this organization. Therefore the essential synthesis tasks at each workplace, and the coordination of individual jobs, and this is known to be one of the main tasks of management. However, coordination should not occur "by orders", so in the literature establishes the principle of unity when setting targets. It is clear that today this principle similar to the principle of chain of command (communication should take place only along the line of hierarchical subordination), is asserted only in a weakened form. Further elevated to the postulate that the chief (team leader) should have in their direct control too many staff (range control). Although research in this direction from the point of view of work organization and social psychology was conducted rapidly, but they are not given the opportunity to make clear conclusions about the range of leadership.
The duration of a contact, if your supervisor, for example, five subordinates, can be determined by dividing the total working hours in a number of contexts: 480 min and 4.8 min.
This formula is more of theoretical interest, since in practice there are management measures that reduce the number and frequency of official ties that require the attention of the Manager, provide the opportunity to increase the control range and thereby reduce costs from inefficient labor, excessive number of units (subordinates). Therefore, most researchers and practitioners believe that one leader can subdue від8 up to 15 subordinates.
In addition to these principles the organization needs when it is created to figure out how it happens (through whom) the formation of the will within the organization. To do this, depending on the circumstances, you can choose the path of centralization or decentralization decisions.
It should be noted that any structuring of a particular set of people across the organization should happen by the middle of the road, which runs between superorganic poor organization.
When superorganic (administration) management actions so regulated that almost no freedom of action in some cases when it is necessary to take special measures for making decisions that allow you to adapt to conditions that have changed, or you consider the initiative of employees. With a weak organization, programmed progress, usually you have to improvise.
The phenomenon of "organization" is represented in two forms of its. manifestations: formal and informal. Formal organization and its work are governed by plans, division of labour and informal reflects the real situation, which may deviate from the desired pattern of formal organization. However, the subject of this section is formal
organization and forms of its manifestation.
As shown by research questions, are typical of such types of formal organizations: "clean" line; functional; linear and staff; sectional;
matrix (including project management);
focused on collective (group).
In addition, in practice there are mixed forms
the specified models.