Matrix organization (including project management)
Together with such form as the divisional organization, belongs to the new "matrix" organization. Dla a typical matrix organization is that it is traditional, is divided by functions of the organization (vertical structuring), superimposed focused on the project or product organization (horizontal structuring). With a combination of structures built object and functional lines intersect two systems of competence. Graphically it can be depicted in matrix form.
The basic idea of this structure — the organization should contribute to the horizontal lateral communications within the organization and to ensure their strict responsibility for the progress of the works, processes and projects in organizations (project management).
It often happens: even in organizations and there is a responsibility for functional departments, reports, and goals, but shared responsibility for the progress of the work and processes that affect many departments, no. This disadvantage is not enough when it comes to simple, standardized processes, however, in solving complex problems (projects) that touch many departments, there are serious difficulties.
Project management does not contain this drawback, since in this case there is a certain responsibility for the progress of work and processes. In the tasks project managers or product managers are responsible for coordinating all points of view on your product (project) using hierarchical linear functions. They concentrated on the problems of their products (projects) and determine what and when you need to do for these products (projects). Managers of functional areas (sections), by contrast, focused not on individual projects (products), and feel responsible for them in the limits of its jurisdiction, which includes deciding how to perform the functions.
The matrix form of organization, of course, their practical implementation can not avoid neither conflicts nor problems, of which the first place should be put the problem of division of competences and thus individual transmission tasks. Further, the dynamics of production processes must be perfectly inscribed in this organizational form, because otherwise it will lead to instability, and then naturally the question arises whether to operate such an organization with its permanent instability.
A significant advantage nstituting project management (matrix organization) is, without a doubt, the mobility of organizations in the horizontal direction. Such advantage has neither linear nor linear-and-staff organization.