The concept of the labour collective
Man is a social being, that is so, the existence of which is possible only under condition of stay in the environment of other people. The social environment a person is multi-layered and covers a social class, a certain stratum of society, family and the community in which the person works. Basic social interactions and relationships develop in the workplace, where people spend most of their lives and formed as a person.
Thus, the enterprise (organization) acts in society not only as production and economic unit, but also as a social factor, as in the workplace implementing social relationships, network of relationships and cooperation between people. The whole way of social life is perceived by the employee, primarily through the prism of the microenvironment in which directly it is working.
The practices of organizations and enterprises shows that the stronger and more meaningful connection between members of the team, the more successful he solve production and other problems, the brighter the collective manifest the individual characteristics of each employee, the • richer and more meaningful in the life of the collective, stronger relationships of community, sociability and mutual aid.
Therefore, without the social issues it is impossible to achieve effective economic development, improved attitude to work, and without productivity growth, without the creation of certain material conditions can not ensure a solution to the problems of social development of collective.
In order to simultaneously solve a set of the above concerns, you need to clearly understand what constitutes a labor collective, its internal construction, how is the socio-psychological climate, when every employee likes his job, relations among the staff friendly, healthy, and team performance is high.
The employment team is a group of people United by a common purpose and activity, common interests, common organization and mutual responsibility, cooperation and mutual assistance.
The labour collective is not just a mechanical unification of people that work together. He represents the Union on the basis of a complex system is constantly active, such that change, develop, economic, technological, institutional, moral, personal relationships between individual employees and their groups.
These relationships and interconnections are displayed in the formal and informal structures of the labor collective.
Both structures, formal and informal, are constantly interacting. Where they match, the team formed a cohesive, able to achieve high performance and social activity. Otherwise, i.e. when the goals of informal groups are different and contrary to the purposes of the staff, this reduces the effectiveness of the team.
The labor collective does not arise at the moment of creation of the enterprise, organization or their unit. Research In the field of social psychology made it possible to develop a model of formation of labour collective, which consists of four stages.
In the first stage of a number of people formed the nominal group. People who enter into it, in the future we have to work together to achieve common goals that have not yet become the motive of the joint activity of members of the future team.
In the second stage of education staff formed its active nucleus, which includes people who not only realize the goals of the team and actively work towards achieving them, but also affect other participants in collective activities. At this stage the team formed a small group, which differ with respect to the goals of the team.
At the third stage there is the ideological cooperation of the micro-groups that perceive the goals and objectives of the team as their own. Changing the relationship between Manager and team.
The fourth step, the team reaches maturity in General and the maturity of the individuals belonging to it, awareness of the unity of interests of each employee and team. In other words, only in the fourth stage formed a Mature team and socio-psychological atmosphere, which contributes to the effective work of the team and each of its members.
The efficiency of the labor collective by a number of parameters that characterize its social structure and General socio-psychological climate in collective.
The presence in the workplace of people of different ages, with different work experience leads to a better organization of mutual aid and exchange of experience between its members. This team provides young workers with the possibility of mastering the profession and collaborative skills and the ability to meet the needs of highly skilled workers in the transfer of professional and life experience to young workers.
When a group of people of different ages reduces the risk of conflict situations, since older people are more prone to compromise, tolerance, and finding ways to understanding and reconciliation, not conflict. In turn, the presence in the team of young, energetic and enterprising people stimulates the initiative and effectiveness of older people.
On the efficiency of the labor collective is also influenced by its sex composition. Typically, the performance of same-sex staff, whether male or female, is significantly lower than where approximately the same ratio between both sexes. This is due to the psychological characteristics of behavior and social role of either gender in society.
Qualification of workers, members of the team affects both the results of its operations and the system of relations in the community. It is clear that the higher the level of qualification of employees, the better results should be expected from such a team. However, the relationships in the team, consisting of highly qualified workers is much smoother, more restrained than in the staff of lower qualifications. In a team of highly skilled workers everyone is entitled to their opinion and respect that opinion, positively perceived initiatives and proposals aimed at improving General activities, etc.
To the components of the microenvironment of the staff, influencing results of his work, relates also the effect of formal and informal organizational relationships between its members, the work style of the Manager, the level and nature of socio-psychological relations within the team, the level of satisfaction of social and household needs of its members. we are talking about the socio-psychological state of the team in the process of joint activity of people, which reflects the real situation of production, the nature and level of relationship between people vertically and horizontally, the prevailing mood of the people, degree of satisfaction from the labor, leadership, relationships etc.
The positive atmosphere in the team not only contributes to higher performance, but is also an important factor that affects people's perceptions of each other, their worldview, mood, health, mental and physical health.
It is known that in the workforce happen manifestations of bureaucracy, authoritarianism, brutality, violations of social norms, there are sharp conflicts and disputes which cause irreparable harm not only labor, but also human health. Thus, according to the doctors, in 80% of cases of myocardial infarction was preceded by either acute trauma or prolonged stress caused by the conflict situation at work.
How is shaped the socio-psychological climate in the team, than it is caused and what factors have a significant impact?
The state of socio-psychological climate in the team depends primarily on the head. It is impossible to imagine a modern leader who would not understand the values of positive socio-psychological atmosphere in the team, it is often a determining impact on the final results of labor. Practice shows that successful leaders are those who see a direct relationship of production, economic indicators from the socio-psychological factors.
The basic principles of normal socio-psychological relationships in the workplace are: freedom of expression and initiatives, solidarity, awareness, justice, mutual respect.
Freedom of expression and initiatives. One of the important human needs as social beings is the desire to openly Express their thoughts. In modern conditions, the team only then will achieve success when each member and all will generally have the right to Express their opinions to the cases in the team, directions of its development, positive aspects and disadvantages as ordinary members of the community and its leaders. In addition, team members should also have the right of initiative in relation to an industrial and social problems. The role of a Manager is to guarantee these rights for all members of the team.
Solidarity. The members of the staff should feel part of an organic whole. Here great importance is the behavior of managers regarding the team. The team must feel that the leader considers himself a member of that entity and not some higher spheres that he does not separate himself from his subordinates, either in form or in fact. Of course, the form of expression of solidarity should not be extended to familiarity, but also the only official service relationship do not cause the approval of the members of the team.
Awareness. The team is working effectively with objective information about matters within the team and in the production and inclined to expect such data from the management. If objective information is not inevitably the occurrence of rumors, most of which contain strain information that characterizes events worse than they really are.
Justice. Usually the staff is fairly assesses the performance of each of its members and generally his personality. So it is sensitive when the ratio of the head to a particular team member does not coincide with the attitude of the team as a whole.
The underestimation of conscientious workers, and indifference to incompetence and pandering to them be condemned by the collective action of the head and deform the socio-psychological climate of the team.
Mutual respect. Samorealizatsii in the work, the team members demand it from the other members and leader. It is not only about external forms of expression of respect for conscientious workers, although it is of great importance, and that respect which is manifested in the actual maintenance of the social status of the worker, which he deservedly occupies in the team. This is manifested in respective forms of incentives, promotion, receive an appropriate share of social benefits.
The socio-psychological state of the team is also characterized by the attitude of the women. Even in cases where women occupy corresponding positions with respect to them there's still a subconscious discrimination. It would be an exaggeration to say that today, women everywhere enjoy equal rights with men. Even the most progressive leaders cannot fully free themselves from deeply ingrained views on the inherent woman's role in social production. These beliefs inadvertently affect the decisions that are made, even in cases when the gender, it would seem, may not have significant value. Basically here we are not talking about the decisions that give preference to the man, but rather about the decisions underlying a certain relation to the woman, regardless of what would be in the same conditions relationship to her husband. Such cases may impress the woman a feeling of usefulness and not be detrimental to the disclosure of her professional qualities.
The data of sociological surveys of business leaders indicate that the administration with great attention exposed to male staff than to female. The main reasons are as follows:
the administration quite skeptical of the fact that a woman can combine work and family responsibilities;
in cases where human behavior threatens her position, the user exerts more effort to retain in the service valuable employee-a man in the same situation a qualified woman;
when promotion to a more responsible job preference often give to men.
So, social and psychological barriers still block the path of the woman career. Discrimination of this kind is based on the firm belief of the administration of the many enterprises and organizations that she is a woman who claims to equality, must adapt to the requirements of the organization. At the same time believe that the administration for its part is not required to make any changes in his attitude towards women. It does not change its attitude to men. Perhaps out of the belief that the work will eventually prevail over the family, the husband is given time and opportunity, remaining in the service, to find a satisfactory exit from the collision of family and business interests. This in itself suggests that from the point of view of the organization of the family must take in a man's life second place.
If the bosses have no clear idea of the situation there, it is, as a rule, tend to follow traditional ideas of the roles of men and women.
Therefore, if the organization's leadership is outspoken in his desire still to encourage the efforts of all employees, you should study all requirements, including unspoken, which the organization imposes on men and women to verify the extent to which some of these requirements reflect prejudices. Identifying and eliminating them will help to create a climate of trust conducive to disclosure of creative potential of all employees, both men and women.