The process of managing people
The fact that the management of production and economic processes in the end comes down to managing people, involves the conscious regulation of collective forms of organization, motivation of action and the nature of the relationship between its members. In this regard, there is a need to identify a mechanism of interpersonal relations and the study of laws of formation of value orientations of employees. However, the team is not only the object but also the subject of management, because employees must take an active part in the implementation of management activities.
It is therefore important to understand the process of formation of management actions and the ways in which people interact in this process.
To develop methods of effective impact on the labor collective must first properly understand the contents of the process of managing people, which is shown here:
the determination of the functional role of each team member, his rights and obligations according to the nature of its mission, as well as their level of General education and professional qualifications, abilities and interests;
the consolidation of all available means of social status of each employee which is recognized by all or almost all members of the team;
creating conditions under which employees could successfully implement their professional and social needs, which need proper organization of the production process, the proper construction of the system of incentives to attract employees to management.
Practical work of Manager subordinate people is to solve three main problems: determination of manpower requirements, its picky selection, ongoing management of people.
In determining the manpower requirements necessary to proceed from the production and business tasks of a certain area, the effective load of each employee and the economical use of funds to pay labour. To create effective working teams need to attract people who already have experience of similar work and qualifications. When selecting employees, you must also find out whether their preparation of organizational culture and value system of the enterprise.
Most of the foreign firms follow the rules: > better to spend retraining and professional reorientation of their own employees than hiring them.
At the current managing employees, the Manager solves a number of tasks, better planning and division of labor, methods of work, his protection, setting tasks, control, assistance, organization of wages and motivate workers.
From this point of view is of great interest to the Japanese experience of human resource management. In a world dominated by opinions about specific national ritual of the Japanese labor force as the most disciplined. Actually we are talking about competent personnel policy of Japanese managers, which is based on a clever and balanced system of selection of personnel.
Feature of Japanese personnel management is a system of material incentives built depending on the terms of service and seniority of the employee. In fact, this efficient system workforce management is much more complicated and is based on the skill level of the employee. The real qualification of an employee is determined not by the diploma or other certificate, and level of skill required for certain tasks or performing work one or another degree of complexity. To acquire a sufficient skill level, you need to have training and experience in a particular enterprise. This allows the employee to know the problems of the enterprise, to solve them or to offer solutions. An effective solution may not depend on the educational level of the employee and an experienced worker with secondary education may receive higher wage than a young graduate of special education, has just enrolled to work.
However, employee with higher education has more potential for successful participation in solving production and management problems and career than those who do not have higher education.
The Manager's job is to accurately determine who and what questions can decide what level of preparation needed for this. And of course, the higher the skill level of the worker, the higher the complexity of the problems to be solved, the higher must be the wages.
Therefore, in the framework of modern management thinking impossible for qualified, experienced engineer, economist, merchandiser, accountant, or other specialist received wages lower than the most skilled worker. This rule follows from the fact that tasks and production problems which to be solved vary greatly in their complexity and importance to the organization.
An important feature of social subsystems, which formed the basis of modern management thinking, is the elimination of all barriers between workers, wherever they manifested, it is not only about reducing the number of levels of the management hierarchy, and the privileges of supervisors and managers (special canteens, rest rooms, a comfortable office, surrounded by secretaries, assistants, consultants and instructors, special Parking for cars, the unwritten rules of subordination, etc.). Such attributes of bureaucracy, borrowed even from the days of feudalism are incompatible with modern management.
The Manager, who runs a small organization or is at a low level of management must be prepared to do the work of their subordinates, to be an example for them in this regard. It can, for example, to assume part of the work of subordinates at peak times and in the holidays. Possession of the labor operations that fall within the scope of duties of subordinates, and can tell the head ways to streamline them.
Special consideration is given to the governance of the portion of the staff, which is actually on their professional activity is part of the subject of management, i.e. personnel management. Managerial impact on the organization of effective work of the workforce is not only Manager, but also his closest associates — management personnel, or organizations. Personnel management is the subjective factor which determines the overall effectiveness of governance. They have a decisive influence on the development and implementation of scientifically grounded economic, social and scientific-technical policy, and growth management role offers and the increasing role of administrative staff.
The increasing role of personnel management require bezposrednio participation in market transformations of the economy, the introduction of market-economic methods of management in the formation and development of new relations of production.
Modern high demands on managerial personnel put forward the task of enriching, expanding and updating the content management.
In the work of the personnel management at the present stage focuses on the development of a they have a new type of management thinking is instilling managerial employees the ability to anticipate the development or emergence of a certain industrial, economic, social, environmental situation, broadmindedness, critical approach etc.
Ability to foresee different economic situation the employee management that only deep strategic thinking is able to combine the economic behavior of thrift, commercial calculation of risk.
Not less great value in the management of economic processes has the breadth of vision of the worker, which is manifested in the ability to perceive the phenomena of economic life, economic situation in the relationship, to systematically develop the most cost-effective solutions, use of effective resources, it is rational to farm. Based on this, these features of managerial behavior as creativity, efficiency, creative approach to solving economic problems. However, the breadth of vision to prevent stereotyped thinking, orientation to the usual, stereotypical forms of management.
A critical approach to the matter, or the ability to take into account not only the positive, beneficial side of economic development, but also negative consequences, has important implications for the choice of economic decisions. Quite often in practice "played" positive effects from anticipated new products, but do not address the negative consequences. This approach delays the process of negotiating and agreeing the optimal positions, mobilizes artists to overcome the possible difficulties. Often it is the uncritical thinking is the reason for the tendency to blame everything on the objective difficulties, the situation or on other people, and not to see the cause of failures in their own actions.
An important feature of the new type of management thinking is a combination in the economic activities of theoretical and practical knowledge. The possession of professional knowledge and theory of management provides managerial activities to a wide target areas, prospects, gives you the opportunity to involve in the decision of economic problems many kinds of tools, techniques and methods that correspond exactly to the nature of the economic situation that has developed.
Therefore, the process of managing people requires the Manager's ability to efficiently use the potential of each employee and contribute to the growth of this potential.