Metaly workforce management
Management is a complex and dynamic process that is managed and implemented by the people to achieve the goal. After you have installed the management objectives, it is necessary to find the most effective ways and methods of achieving them. In other words, if the objectives need to answer the question "what to achieve?" then followed this question: "what are the most efficient to achieve the goal?". Consequently, there is a need for the use of the Arsenal of tools that achieve management goals, i.e. management.
The method is an event or set of events in any human activity, the way to achieve the goal, the way to solve a specific task.
Means of purposeful influence on labour collective or its individual members are called control methods. Methods represent an important element of management process. The presence of progressive management methods, and skillful use of them is a prerequisite of effective management and business processes.
Management techniques designed to ensure high working efficiency of the groups, their coordinated work to promote the maximum mobilization of creative activity of each member. These management methods differ from all other technical and technological methods used in the solution of complex industrial and economic problems.
The special role of methods of management is to create conditions for clear organization of the process control, the use of modern equipment and advanced technology organization of labor and production, to ensure maximum effectiveness in achieving the set goal. Thus, the concept of "management practices" implies the essence of control and belongs to the main categories of management theory.
The formation of targeting labor groups and individual members is directly linked to motivation, that is, using factors that determine human behavior in the team in the production process. Hence a very important requirement to the methods of control: methods of control should have its motivational characteristic, which determines the direction of action them. This feature shows the motives that determine human behavior and which are the focus of the group methods.
According to the motivational characteristics in the composition of the management methods there are three groups:
organizational and administrative;
Economic management methods combine all the methods by which the impact on the economic interests of the groups and their individual members. This effect is material stimulation of individual employees and teams in General.
Organizational and administrative methods directed to the use of such work motives, as a sense of duty, of responsibility, including administrative. These methods have direct character of impact: any regulatory or administrative act is enforceable.
Social methods are based on the use of social mechanism operating in the collective (an informal group, role and status of the individual, the system of relations in collective, social needs, etc.).
The effectiveness of management methods depends largely on the qualifications of kad- ' the ditch, which predetermines the necessity of systematic and purposeful training and everyday use all of these areas of influence on the team and individuals.
Economic methods of management occupy a Central place in the system of scientific management methods to the employment of people, because their basis is targeted program of economic development of individual enterprises and organizations and is determined by the operation mode and the incentives that objectively encourage interested teams and individual employees into effective work.
Thus, the influence on the interests of the control object creates a mechanism for its orientation to the most efficient mode of operation without daily and direct intervention from the top.
The composition of economic methods of management include organizational and production planning, the method of complex target programs, commercial calculation, the system of economic regulators of economic activity.
Under planning is understood as an elaborate preparation for future activities are systematically oriented towards the goals of the organization or enterprise. Economic planning is to develop a system of indicators, which are the most important, defining indicators of economic activity. These indicators cover all areas of activity of the enterprise or of the organization: production, realization, purchase of raw materials, materials and goods, Finance, stocks of goods and materials, labour etc.
Planning as a method of control is characterized by several specific features:
1) in goal, since each indicator indicates to the performers that the results of the activities necessary to achieve;
2) specific targeted because the target is always specifically addressed to some contractor (employee, group of employees, the team as a whole);
3) time interval of validity (year, quarter, month, decade or other period of time).
The system of planning of economic activities in the former Soviet Union have had positive and negative sides. On the positive side of planning should include: introduction using the plan the element of a conscious programming of a set of actions to achieve goals; the development of planning methodologies at different levels and branches of government; the unification of system of indicators of plans and some others.
However, socialist planning was characterized by significant drawbacks, which largely drove the effect of planning. This policy targets and the lack of flexibility of plans, voluntarist approach to defining the indicators of excessive detail plans and regulating the activities of enterprises and organizations, insufficient development of methodology of planning of economic activities on the level of enterprises and organizations, etc. The result was not executed scheduled task of any five-year period throughout the USSR, and businesses and organizations to achieve scheduled indicators often blew up its economic capacity for future activities or produced products, which in conditions of this market would have never gotten public recognition.
After the collapse of the Soviet Union, along with the abandonment of the centralized policy of planned management of the economy, unfortunately, rejected and the rational elements of planning as a method of management, developed over the past decades. Today in fact the modern methodology of planning of economic activities at the level of enterprises and organizations, which would correspond to conditions of operation them in peregrinate period, and especially in the presence of a developed market. Therefore, a significant problem for scholars and practitioners-managers is the creation of a modern methodology of industrial planning economic activity. Such methodology should be based on the following principles:
the focus on achieving outcomes for the constant improvement of the efficiency of business processes and production;
to achieve the social goals of production through a combination of individual and group interests of participants in the proceedings;
continuity planning, which should manifest itself in the continuity of prospective and current, annual and operational schedules;
scientific validity of indicators, proportionality and balance;
high competitiveness of production and services, it meets the needs of internal and external markets;
application in planning of economic-mathematical methods, computer technology, incorporating bahamavention the development of the plan and its successive optimization.
Planning as a method of control covers the many facets of economic activities of the organization or enterprise, sector and national economy as a whole. However, there are problems that require the development of special planning programs for their solution, the concentration of resources and efforts and even creating a special apparatus that directs the implementation of these programs. In these cases, the method of complex target programs, or method of program-target management.
Program-target management in recent years has been rapid development in connection with the necessity of solving the most complex problems of management of technological, organizational and socio-economic systems. The specifics of these tasks lies in the fact that in such systems there are new goals for which there are no mechanisms to achieve it. In terms of classical control theory, this means that there is not only the description of the system, but the system itself.
As a tool for managing complex target program (CTP) is almost always useful when it comes to achieving new goals or objectives-based counterparts. Target management provides an opportunity to consider new target under various angles of view, to design a target structure, to pick that structure, the appropriate structure of resources which can be in the form of goals, identify actions to achieve the goals and rationally plan their time.
Thus, when using the DRM system, the purpose of becoming the starting point of planning, as each major problem corresponds to the planned program of the decision for her.
Targeted comprehensive program forms a certain integrity, inherent one, and can be considered in two aspects: as a management tool and as new systems. In each case, DRM is a planned policy document, is valid until achieve the goal. The program activities should be linked to the tasks of other sections of the plan economic-financial activity of the enterprise or group of enterprises, which are part of some Association (the system).
Consequently, the integrated program is planned for systematic implementation, United by a common purpose and specific terms of a complex of interrelated tasks and address social, economic, scientific, technical and organizational nature.
The core of the program are goals that are specified in a number of tasks. their solution is carried out through a system of measures implemented specific performers, who are allocated the necessary resources. For program is characterized by the purposeful use of resources and implementation of programme activities regardless of the interests of structural divisions of the overall management system.
There are three groups of programs that you are in control.
The first group is the national program level, including socio-economic programs of development of foreign economic relations, etc.
The second group are programs of sectoral and regional level and cross-sectoral programmes for specific objects.
These include scientific and technical programs, execution of large development works, construction and commissioning of important facilities, etc.
The third group includes the enterprise development program, as well as programs that coordinate the development and implementation of certain types of machinery, technologies, equipment, and instruments.
The structure of the SYSTEM must correspond to their purpose, the role they perform in ensuring the total efficiency of economic activities.
Each program should reflect: the condition of the problem, the basic preconditions for its software solutions;
the main goal of the program, its place in the overall system of goals of the industry or enterprise;
system goals and main objectives of the programme; targets, revealing the final results of the program;
achieving the goals of the program, the system of programme activities;
organizational and Executive structure; the resources required to complete the program and the timing of its implementation;
evaluation of the effectiveness of program outcomes. The effectiveness of the implementation of the plan or DRM depends on the mechanism governing the system of economic relations at the level of individual enterprises, organizations and industries. Such a mechanism in a market economy is a commercial calculation.
Commercial calculation is based on the General principles of a market economy: maximum freedom of economic actors; their full responsibility for the results of economic activities; competition among producers of goods and services; free pricing; the refusal of the state from direct involvement in economic activity of market subjects; social protection of citizens. In other words, a necessary condition for the effective functioning of market mechanism of economy regulation presence of independent subjects of market relations.
In the national economy of Ukraine are two forms of commercial calculation and a complete interior.
Full commercial calculation are enterprises with rights of legal entities, which have independent balance, accounting and statistical reports, create and expend funds to encourage workers, open accounts in banks having the right for independent economic activities, i.e. transactions, contracts, agreements, any legal or physical person as a subject of market economy.
Full commercial calculation as a method of control used by businesses, organizations and institutions of all forms of ownership: state, collective (cooperative), private, mixed.
On the principles of commercial calculation of internal work relatively independent in solving the issues of production and economic activities of medium and small production and business units of enterprises and organizations.
They keep records of their costs and benefits, make up a balance sheet (or simplified calculations like the balance sheet) and create a funds of material incentives. Relationships with companies or organizations whose shares they are, are based on the system of treaties that contain mutual obligations. The right to independent economic activities outside the enterprise or organization has such structural units do not have.
Commercial calculation completely excludes the regulatory impact on economic activity of business entities by the state or higher it management systems. Such regulation is not arbitrary impact on business processes and the application of the system of economic regulators of economic activity. These economic regulators are divided into national, local and internal.
To the national regulators of economic activity include taxes, loans, adjustable rates, room tariffs, economic benefits.
Among the economic regulators of the economic activities applied by the state, the first place is occupied by taxes. They are divided into direct and indirect. To include a direct tax on income, land, transport, value added, etc.
Indirect taxes are customs and excise duties. Duty is levied on goods import, export and transit, and the values are transported under the control of the customs Department. The excise as an indirect tax on goods of mass consumption, is included in the price of the relevant goods or
the fee for services.
Through taxes, the state regulates the activities of business entities setting the taxes higher-level activities or products that do not have important social values (e.g., gambling, tobacco and alcohol products) and lowering taxes in those areas which require priority development (production of goods and services) or perform a special social role (e.g., enterprises
societies of the disabled).
An important regulator of economic activity have a loan. Lending of economic activity in Ukraine is now a system of commercial banks at the expense of own means and credit resources received from the National Bank of Ukraine.
The national Bank of Ukraine set the interest rate for credit resources, therefore, determines the major part of interest rates on loans granted to businesses by commercial banks. The latter determines the size of the loan, based on the National Bank paid interest rates, the rate of turnover of credit, types of loans etc. now, the banks carry so focused on the impact on economic activity of enterprises and organizations on their effectiveness.
A state may also use a lever
economic impact on business activities as regulated prices. Regulation of prices may be on the upper limits of prices for some goods are fixed (solid) prices, limits the profitability of production and size of the trading margin for the links - varaprasada. So, the prices of some goods are influenced by demand and supply, and depending on the method and magnitude of the restrictions imposed by the government on the constituent elements of the pin. This lever is used by the state for social protection of separate categories of the population (the prices of goods of daily consumption), promoting or discouraging the production of certain goods luxury goods).
(A similar approach is used by the state when establishing rates for services.
A fairly effective regulator of economic activity is the economic incentives set by the government for payment of taxes, payment arrangements between the budget and enterprises, between enterprises in different sectors of the economy, etc.
On the economic activity also influenced the location of industrial, commercial and other enterprises and the development of infrastructure in their places of work. Local authorities use a number of economic regulators to businesses that are in more favorable conditions compared to other, profits transferred to local budgets. Local regulators include rental payments, local taxes and fees.
Thus, the regulation of economic activities of specific business entities implemented by the state and authorized by the authorities.
In addition, the regulation of activities of enterprises, which are integral parts of a business system is this system. Endogenous regulators of the economic activity of jurisdictional enterprises centralized creation of assets (capital investments, training, backup, insurance, science and technology development, etc.) and on-farm contributions to system-wide goals and programs. The norms of deductions in these funds and implementation of system-wide programs are established by the Supreme management body of the system.
The economic regulators of economic activity have to be flexible, to react immediately to changes in the economic situation. Now apply a lot of these regulators. Further, in the conditions of a developed market, their number will decrease, but the market does not provide for complete abandonment of economic regulation of economic processes..
Implementation methods of economic management is carried out in the framework of relations of production between people that are part of the workforce. This system of relationships is extremely complex and involves economic, social, psychological and organizational relations. The latter finds expression in the vertical and horizontal relationships manifesting in the form of employees ' interest in collaboration.
For any operations of an industrial nature, every employee has duties, rights, responsibilities, which are formed in the process of implementing management functions of Organization. Implementation of organizational relations is the use of organizational-administrative management methods, which are also called administrative. However, the concept of "organizational-administrative management methods" wider as administrative methods are based on applying the normative acts (decrees, orders, instructions, authorities and management) and organizational - administrative methods encompass the essence of the organizational component of the control mechanism.
Organizational and administrative methods are closely linked to economic methods of management, because they are aimed at solving common tasks to achieve the goals of economic activity.
The use of organizational-administrative management methods are preceded by economic methods, because in order to use the latter, you need to form an organizational management object and the management structure. In the process of functioning of an economic system of economic management methods are implemented in the form of organizational and administrative influence of the subject of management on object (regulations, orders, directives, etc.). The close relationship of these two groups of methods synthesizes effectively the impact of the control subsystem on the subsystem run.
However, organizational-administrative methods of management differ from the economic. The basis of their differentiation is the mechanism of action and a form of manifestation of these techniques in the management process. Economic management methods are based on the consideration of economic interests of the people, the combination of these interests: a one — man team — society. Form of manifestation of economic management have certain plans, objectives, programs expressed in economic parameters, the degree of satisfaction of individual, group, collective interests, expressed by the incentives of individual and collective work. Organizational-administrative management methods based on individual and group characteristics of people, as a sense of duty, responsibility, discipline and understanding of administrative punishment.
Organizational-administrative management methods should be applied taking into account the requirements of economic laws.
Only in this case they are scientifically justified. If the management body in its activities does not take into account or insufficiently takes into account the requirements of economic laws, administrative methods can develop the administrative, bureaucratic, arbitrary, subjective methods of feedback.
Characteristics of organizational-administrative management methods are:
direct impact on the object of management;
the mandatory nature of the guidelines, orders, resolutions and other administrative decisions of higher authorities to subordinate objects;
a certain amount of responsibility for failure to comply with instructions and orders.
The acts of management which are management employees, are divided into two types: normative and individual.
Regulations do not have specific addressee. They contain General norms of action in respect of certain conditions and is generally, for a long period. These include the approximate statutes, the provisions on business entities and their subdivisions, job descriptions, norms and standards, costs, materials, labor, standards, etc.
Individual acts of management are addressed to specific objects of management. These include orders, regulations, orders, circulars, instructions.
Organizational-administrative management methods klassificeret on various grounds. The most important value for them is classification, which is built on the account of specificity of tools of leverage organizational impact. Such levers are regulation, rule, instruction, discipline requirements, responsibility, authority etc. by Grouping these means of influence role in the process of governance, we can distinguish two groups of organizational-administrative methods of management: organizational and administrative stabilizing. Central among these is the first group — organizational-stabilizing methods of influence.
Main content methods of organizational-stabilizing effect is to establish the composition of the elements of the system and sustainable institutional links between the consolidation of certain responsibilities for the system as a whole and for its individual units.
The second group of organizational-administrative management methods are the methods of administrative influence, which reflect current usage of the assigned organizational relationships and their partial adjustments in case of changes in working conditions. The basis of the administrative methods imposed powers and duties.
Both groups of management methods are used together because they complement each other. However, these methods are interchangeable, and defines the features selected at the management of one type or another organization's key aspects of organizational activities in the management process.
Organizational-administrative management methods can be classified also sources of exposure. Then allocate the ways the organizational impact of the first, second and subsequent levels of management. Practice shows that each control level has its own characteristics organizational impact and highlights those that are most effective for this level. At the highest levels of governance dominated by regulatory and normative institutional ways of influence. At the grassroots level of control is at the forefront of regulatory techniques designed to adjust and maintain the daily production and business activities. Differentiation of methods, organizational impact on the levels of the control system is logical, as it reflects the amount of authority possessed by managers of a certain rank, the legal position of a certain level of control, specificity control, its functional content at a certain stage of management.
Justified differentiation of organizational-administrative methods of management by levels of the control system plays an important role in control theory, allows for the most complete accounting of organizational relations in the socio-economic system. Conversely, the use of organizational-administrative methods of management that do not meet the status stage of control in the hierarchy of the management structure, leading to breakdowns, disruptions of production and economic processes. A striking example of this may be an attempt to concentrate on the upper levels of management in the years of rule of the administrative-command system administrative activities with the current regulation of the functioning of organizations and enterprises.
Organizational and administrative methods klassificeret well as their orientation.
Allocate management techniques aimed at the subject and object of management. The specificity of a particular subsystem determines the specifics of the organizational influence on each of them. Organization of intellectual work (activities of the subject of management) has its own characteristics. In this process the main role is played by regulations, according to which there are employees of the management using rights, powers and performing certain duties in the common control system.
Labor activity of people, which is the object of managerial impact, contains slightly less intellectual element and requires the use of administrative acts in the form of economic, social and other impacts.
So, organizational and administrative methods stem from the essence of management, characteristics and inherent relationships is a core managerial impact, specific management phenomenon.
Hence the necessity of application of organizational and administrative methods of management under any economic system. In these methods the control action becomes subject forms and encourages artists to action. Of particular importance are the organizational and administrative techniques during the birth of market economy in Ukraine. At this stage we need to establish a new governance structure, to regulate their activities, to define a rational ratio between all groups of management methods and the directions of purposeful change that ratio to the state recommended the modern scientific and practical management. Organizational-administrative management methods can be effective at improving workers in transition because it requires like reconstruction of the psychology of people and the gradual establishment of a system of economic regulation of economic processes.
Among organizational and administrative methods of management dominated organizational methods-stabilizing effects to the establishment, support and improvement of organizational structures and procedure of activity of subjects and objects of management. So, long term using these methods define the management structure, how the interaction of control system components, functions, powers and forms of responsibility of the subject and object of management.
Objects, organizational impacts act as the subject and object of management, and partly the environment.Organizational influences on management subject is to change the organisation of its functioning, i.e. functions, structure, organization managerial labor, define or modify the rights, duties, and so on. Of course, acting on the subject of management, we also affect the object, because these two subsystems are inseparable.
The subject of management carries out an independent institutional effect on the object, setting the mode of operation of the latter.
The composition of the organizational and stabilizing control methods include regulation, standards and guidance. -
Regulation is a pretty tough type of organizational impact is in the development and enactment of organizational regulations, which are binding within a certain, defined by these provisions time. You can specify the organizational structure regulatory provisions. This is, firstly, the position zagalnoosvitnioi nature, establishing the organizational differences and the functioning of the socio-economic system as a whole. Second, this provision, which defines and establishes internal operational procedures, organizational status of the various units, their tasks, functions, powers etc.
Thirdly, this is a typical structure that defines the basic features of building internal organizational basis. Fourth, it is the official regulation, which is the development of staffing and job descriptions, establishing the list of positions and the basic requirements for their replacement.
From a scientific point of view, the set of regulations should cover all parts of the socioeconomic system — from jobs, teams, departments, sections, companies to the top management. The construction and functioning of all these links should be governed by special regulations about structural subdivisions and job
instructions for specific jobs.
Rationing as a method of organizational-stabilizing effects a more gentle way to organizational stabilization lies in the establishment of standards that are benchmark in the activities.
Rules and regulations used in the practice of management can be classified as:
the level of government—national, system-wide and intra. Examples of economic regulations can be the rates of export duties, rules of taxation of activity of the enterprises, the minimum wage in the national economy, etc. In the system-wide rules and regulations apply the regulations of foundations, a depreciation of premises, equipment and mechanisms natural losses of goods during transportation and storage etc. Industrial standards are developed directly on the plants. It limits consumption of materials, raw materials and fuel production, generation, regulations of time for technological operations and the like;
by kinds — technological, economic planning, labor, financial, logistical, managerial and. Technical-technological standards govern the use of raw materials, equipment and auxiliary materials. Group planning - economic regulation covers the regulation of remuneration and incentives, the valuation of inventory, the timing of the submission of the statistical reports. Labour standards is standards, standards of number of employees, standard time for work and rest, labor regulations, and the like. Financial rules govern the procedure for obtaining loans and eliminating debt, creating funds General and special purpose, the allocation of loss in results of operations. logistical rules determine the order of receipt of raw materials and goods in the enterprise, terms of delivery, minimum shipment volumes, and the like. To organizational and management norms will include typical management structure, and rules of subordination, the procedure for developing and making managerial decisions, etc.;
in terms of action rules are divided into long - and short-term;
in the direction of exposure to the exposure to the team as a whole and on individual workers.
Rules and regulations used in the management process is a necessary, an important condition for scientific management since it is based on their performing functions of management. It is therefore extremely important to continuously improve the regulatory framework, to expand the range of regulatory indicators in a timely manner to revise previously adopted rules and regulations that they do not become a barrier to optimize the management.
Guidance is the most gentle way organizational impact and is the familiarization with the working conditions or circumstances assigned to the case, clarifying the issues, potential difficulties, of precaution against possible errors in advice regarding the implementation of certain types of work. Coaching always has the form of methodological and information assistance aimed at successful completion of the work.
Instruction may be via radio, phone, video, personal contacts, individually and collectively. It may have a visual form. The briefing will include the design of buildings institutional documentation about the working conditions. It stands with the names of organizational units, their location, work order, internal organisational instructions. An important role is played by the brevity, simplicity, based on the psychology of perception. This all improves the organizational conditions of work, contributes to successful implementation of it.
These methods organizational impact, it is recommended to use in combination.
Methods of organizational impact is aimed at the formation of the control system, defining its functions and structure, order and methods of execution of certain functions, the organization of joint work, the regulation, methodological guidance and training workers with effective ways of performing the tasks assigned to them. The importance of these objectives provides for mandatory use and continuous improvement of organizational impact as a special management tools at all levels of management.
In practice, management can develop problems that do not fit within the established regolamentazione acts or the regulations limits. In other words, there is often the specific situation is not provided for in the regulatory acts or intended by them as administrative activities. Situations of the first kind is a departure from previously accepted plans, because of violation of the relations between subject and object of control, insufficient substantiation of some management decisions, disruptions in the supply of goods and raw materials of the enterprises, changes in the nature of demand in the market etc. Deviations disrupt the planned programme for the development of economic activities and require the active intervention of administrative authorities to urgently rectify the situation.
Situations of the second kind, that is, the predictions in the organizational norms, but such that require specific administrative activities, in each case, is, for example, activities on selection and placement of personnel, operational management of production and economic process.
In all instances, the ways of administrative influence.
The basis of the regulatory impact is the order of control developed from acts of organizational impact. It is on the maintenance and improvement of this procedure is sent a status effect. It comes from the head, binding and not subject to discussion or change. All acts regulatory impact go strictly in one direction: from the highest management levels to the grassroots, from the leader to subordinates.
For administrative effects, the characteristic irregularity of its occurrence, as deviations in the accepted order management arise suddenly and they are difficult to predict in advance. A well-organized system, these deviations are minimized, however, through various external and internal reasons and sometimes need it in the application of regulatory impact.
The reasons for such deviations in the system of organization, for example, shopping activities may be the irregularity of importation of goods in the trading network, insecurity, workers need categories, safety violations, etc.; in the technological system — violation of technological process of wholesale and retail sales of goods receipts from suppliers of substandard goods, failure to comply with regulations and modes of operation; in the system of labour organization — violation of labor discipline, the use of imperfect systems of material stimulation of labour, etc.; in the economic system — the discrepancy in the actual cost of turnover is planned, the imperfection of the existing systems of planning and economic incentives.
Administrative methods of exposure to prevent deviation from a planned program of management, to transition the system to the equilibrium state, for example, introduction of more perfect organization of labor, planning, promotion etc.
Regulatory impact is based on the development of management decisions concerning ways of overcoming of the deviations which have arisen or improving efficiency of an organizational system guiding those decisions for a specific artist to implement. The form of output status effects are oral and written instructions. They include directives, decrees, orders, instructions, ordinances, resolutions. All types of regulatory activities, regulatory impact, rather than documents. Documents with similar names — only the outward manifestation of regulatory impact. The very same regulatory effect can be in the form of oral or documented. Each of these forms has its advantages. The oral form is more operational. Documentary form contributes to better accounting and control of execution of orders. The combination of forms of administrative activity is an important part of the side of the head.
Resolution — this refers to the administrative acts, which are accepted by the collective management bodies (congresses, conferences, meetings, committees, Board) and provide solutions to important issues concerning the whole organization or system as a whole.
The main form of regulatory impact on companies run by managers on the principles of unity of command the orders there. An order is a written decision of a certain task with a list of specific ways, timing, order, responsible persons and controls. The fulfillment of the order is necessary, because it expresses the will of the line Manager, who has the right of sole decision-making. The order must meet the standards of administrative law, or he can be legally improper.
A kind of administrative influence are requirements details the specific ways and means to solve specific problems in the scope of individual services and departments ha. the Order may be issued by the line or functional Manager within his powers.
A specific form of regulatory impact is the Directive, which is a decision about the purpose of perspective development of separate departments, enterprises, organizations, economic systems and industries. Directives define the overall objective of managing for the long run and requires a qualitative change
ways and methods of work. The implementation of directives tied to the publication of the orders, directives, regulations and guidelines for solving intermediate problems.
The Department also widely used resolution, which is a specific reference to the contractor regarding the implementation of those or other actions under the relevant document. Resolution is imposed by the head in the upper left corner of the document at an angle to the text.
Thus, the regulatory effect is realized in various forms. The diversity of these forms allows us to successfully maintain the stability of the control system in accordance with the nature of the issues and possibly eliminate deviations from the set program into the organizational system of enterprises and organizations.
One of the most important practical governance issues is the efficiency of administrative management. To identify it, comparing what was provided by the orders, regulations, ordinances and other forms of regulatory impact with what was actually achieved when implementing them. The effectiveness of written instructions (orders) is determined by their quantity, degree of validity, demonstration of creativity and initiative on the part of the performers, the level of Executive discipline.
The practice of management of socio-economic systems discovered such a dependence: the higher the level (quality) of the organization of labor, production and management, the less issues a written notice. A large number of orders weakens their impact, turning in formal acts, increases the amount of work of the administrative apparatus.
It should be noted that more written guidance is issued, the greater the probability of inconsistent events, deadlines, violations of the principle of material and time of provision of notice.
The validity of the orders and instructions necessary first of all to consider legally: that is, from the perspective of their compliance with the content of legal norms. With the legal validity of the instructions distinguish between the validity of their resource, that is, the presence or provision of material, human, financial and time resources to perform these instructions and orders.
Using administrative methods of management, the modern Manager needs to clearly and correctly set tasks, the competence to analyze and effectively monitor their implementation, to carry out the guidance and outreach, to establish and maintain discipline.
Under discipline understand the skillful execution of orders, instructions, directions of supervisor, which provides expertise, experience, creativity and initiative of the performers.
To establish a high Executive discipline needed:
time-bound execution of tasks and activities contained in the ordinances, regulations, orders, and strict compliance with them;
personal liability of executors for the execution of tasks and activities;
the establishment of incentives for the implementing a timely and anticipatory execution of tasks and events.
Experts believe that in the case of non-compliance with specified conditions, lack of effective monitoring requirements are fulfilled on time only 50-55% of the total number of them.
Considered. special features of the administrative activities of the Manager concerning the written form of the orders. Along with it, as already noted, the widely used verbal instructions as a means of communication in the control system, the relationship "Manager — subordinate".
In respect of the use of verbal orders here's some guidance and practice-proven:
to give oral instructions need clear, understandable language, not to put the contractor in a difficult position: either. he will fulfill the order as realized, or come to the supervisor for clarification;
it is useful to check, whether correctly understood the order of the contractor;
before you give an oral order, you need to ensure that it does not contradict the earlier devotees;
oral order also shall be fixed by the Director. Form fixing such orders can be a business notebook, of the head or a special magazine.
In rasporedi the head it is the art of management. Skillful use of different regulatory methods, combining them with organizational and managerial methods arranges a stabilizing effect on the object of control, increases the effectiveness of management activities, ensure smooth operation of the entire socio-economic system.
Discussed above, the economic and organizational-administrative management methods are focused mainly on production and economic activity of organizations and enterprises. However, as already emphasized, organization or entity acts in society not only as production and economic unit, but also as a social factor. In this regard the Manager must possess social control methods.
Under the social management techniques understand the tools and levers of influence on the socio-psychological climate in the team, the labor and social activity of the team and its individual employees. Methods of social control aimed at harmonizing social relations in the collective satisfaction of social needs of workers — development of personality, social protection, etc.
The methods of social control include social forecasting, social regulation, social regulation and social planning.
Social forecasting is used to create the information base for the development of plans for social development and application of methods of social influence specific to the workplace. The parameters of social prognosis include the following indicators: age and sex changes in the team; changes in educational and qualification level of employees; changes in material security and living conditions of employees; the dynamics of the ratio of physical and mental labour etc.
Social regulation as a method of control consists in the existence of such social norms that govern the behavior of individuals and groups in the team. The rate is usually understood to a certain, recognized as mandatory, order, rule. According to this social norms regulate various aspects of economic and social life of the group and subordinate their common goals and objectives that are defined by character of production relations and use of the system.
Social norms reflect a certain kind of interests— public, class, collective and group. The main and immediate objective of these standards is to coordinate all kinds of interests. Since the interests guide the behavior of individuals and their groups, the mutual coordination of public and private interests is crucial for the functioning of the mechanism of regulation of administrative relations.
To solve this problem is quite difficult, because relationships between the interests of different levels and of different types is not straightforward and, as a rule, represent a complex combination and often may be (mutually contradictory.
Social management is based on the use of a wide variety of social norms, because various and the relations regulated by them people and social systems. However, they can be grouped on the basis of formation and implementation of them. Distinguish between law, morality and credibility in public opinion. In other words, management relations are governed by three types of social norms: 1) juridical (legal) norms, which are established or sanctioned by the state; 2) public (neuroticdummy) rules which are established by public organizations and societies; 3) moral norms, which are formed in the minds of people in the process of education and life of them.
Classification of social norms can be carried out in other ways: depending on the type and the kind of relationships that are regulated, the degree of binding norms, ways of their formation and mechanism of action, the degree of formality, nature of occurrence (spontaneous or deliberate actions), they cover the sphere of values (political, religious, legal, cultural, moral, ethical, organizational, etc.).
Therefore, the managerial relations are governed by a set of social norms and procedures for their implementation which ensure the normal functioning and development of systems in accordance with changing conditions of their existence.
All rules have the same ultimate goal, but their contents, order of establishment and influence on the processes of management activities, the scope and mechanism of distribution in the system is different.
Legal rules are set by the state and enforced as a belief and, if necessary, and means of coercion. Compared to other types of social norms legal norms are characterized by a greater degree of elaboration and formalization and control the most significant relationship.
Legal regulation is distributed primarily on the competence of the constituent entities of social control, which is assigned to the management body of the sphere that defines the legal basis of its activities and within which he independently solves the problem of the appropriate level of management.
In other words, competence is the corresponding function on a particular set of powers and responsibilities, failure of which entails liability in the form of managerial influence in regard to the body or officials.
The volume and character of powers, and relative degree of responsibility depends on the place, which is the body in the management hierarchy, the scale and areas of its activities. In the process of establishing the competence of the separation of powers and responsibilities among the various levels of management, departments and officials at each of these levels. The result is determine the levels at which considered and made decisions and thereby is fixed a certain ratio of centralization and decentralization.
As a rule, the legal regulations apply to the state, and often on the public system.
Rules adopted by public organizations in the framework of the relevant organizations. However, there are exceptions to these rules when the regulations are prepared and published jointly by the state and public bodies and at the same time acquire the legal and public nature. Such, for example, the law governing the payment and labor protection, pension security etc. the Activities of public organizations regulates normative acts of different origin. It is primarily on acts, defining the status of those or other public organizations (e.g., the Law of Ukraine "On consumer cooperatives"), And
However, the majority of the acts regulating relations in the management of public organizations developed by them. Such acts are combined into three groups: the charters of public associations; regulations on certain public organizations; regulations on certain issues of activity of public organizations; the user public organizations.
Thus, the volume of the competence and the legal status of the management body of consumer cooperative societies is fixed in the Charter of co-operative organizations and in the Regulation on these bodies. These documents contain guidance and training materials, which provide the General objectives and the subordination of the body concerned and what I have the right and obligation to make every unit and every Executive.
All this involves the formation of organizational management structures of relations between subjects of legal relations (both horizontally and vertically), regulation of relations within the administrative apparatus, between the various bodies and their structural units, between supervisors and subordinates, between the management bodies (officials) and shareholders, regulation of application of responsibility to ensure the legality in the activities of the system.
The implementation of standards developed by public organizations is guaranteed by the authority of these organizations, as well as some forms of coercion provided for in normative documents, defining the status of these organizations.
The ever-increasing importance in the regulation of administrative relations acquire morality. Under morality, as we know, understand the rules (principles) of human behavior that relate to the sphere of relations between them, and their relationship with society.
Morality, unlike law, supported by the authority of public opinion and, as a rule, compliance is based on own beliefs. The greater recognition in the management acquire these rules, so it is perfect. In this regard, it is sufficient to refer to a social phenomenon of public opinion, which is largely based on norms of morality. Public opinion is manifested in a specific form collective judgments of society, class or social group, while expressing their attitude towards certain phenomena and facts of social systems and also deeds of individuals.
As a tool to regulate relations management public opinion is valuable, because it is always addressed to the individual as a member of society and requires her responsibility to society and social system in which it operates. Thus the impact on the mental condition of the person, his emotions and will, she's contributing to the formulation of desired values and attitudes.
At the current stage of development of social systems in the us and abroad is a noticeable upward trend in the values of morality and standards, developed by public organizations in the conditions of gradual reduction of the scope of application of legal norms. In this regard, there is the problem of appropriate choice of social norms in each particular case, taking into account the situation and the personal qualities of the performer, the nature of his interests and activities.
Social regulation is measures to maintain social justice in the community and improving social relations between workers.
Means of social regulation are collective agreements, agreements, contracts, mutual obligations, internal rules, statutes (in the part regulating the conduct of officials), rules of etiquette, rituals. It also includes the priority of satisfaction of social needs, depending on seniority, the production activity of workers and the like.
Social regulation aims to promote collective and personal initiatives of employees and their interest to work.
Promote collective initiatives carried out in various ways. This is the familiarization of the employees with the enterprise history, its best employees and their accomplishments, the imitation of good old traditions and creating new, the desire to ensure that employees valued branded businesses have achieved a high quality of work qualifications and training.
Great importance is given to encourage personal initiative through moral incentives.
The high quality of individual work these incentives are:
the level of responsibility (delegation of authority that allows the employee to make decisions on behalf of management, the honorary order to represent the company in other organizations, to make a report or message to the meeting, etc.);
strengthening the authority of the employee, distinguished public praise, high estimation of the results of his work in the presence of other employees;
admission to the reserve to fill management position, showing personal perspectives (promotion), the disclosure to the employee of the prospects for the development of enterprises, organizations and in this regard, forecast service growth of the employee;
personal informal praise of a subordinate, in the process of business contacts, moral support, personalized greetings with significant dates;
recommendation of an employee for statements in the press, on radio, on TV about the best practices your team (or personal experience);
the direction of administration letters about the employment success of young workers, their parents.
Low quality of individual work for moral incentives are:
personal communication with subordinates, analysis of indicators of work, reasons of nonfulfillment of the instructions and orders of heads of business;
public form of analysis works in the presence of other employees;
friendly, positive and specific criticism of the shortcomings;
downgrade. responsibility — deprivation of the right to make their own decisions, sign documents and so on.
Stimulation of interest is the promotion of improvements in the work of conscientious workers, the creation of "core veterans" organization of business trips to other enterprises for acquaintance with the state of Affairs etc.
Great attention should be paid to stabilization of personnel — exclusion of the causes of turnover.
Social planning as a method of social control is implemented by drawing up a plan of social development organizations (enterprises).
Plan for social development generally consists of four sections:
1 — "Udoskonalennya social structure of the staff";
2 — "Improvement of working conditions, safety and health of employees";
3 — "Improvement of living standards, improvement of housing and cultural and community conditions of workers";
4 — "Increase labor and social activity of employees, development of self-government."
Plan for social development of labour collective — organic component part of an integrated plan (program) of the economic and social development of the enterprise (organization) which provides scientifically sound and financially secure system of measures for improving the structure of the team, formation and more complete satisfaction of material and spiritual needs of employees.
Planning for social development must follow from a basic level of development (social passport of the team), including a framework for change (social NY forecast) and contain a list of specific activities with deadlines for their implementation, responsible persons and funding sources.
The first section of "Improvement of the social structure of the group" must contain information on planned changes in the ratio between the operational, engineering and technical personnel and employees in connection with the qualification and professional changes, reduced physical labor, mechanization and automation of production, business and management processes, and In this section it is also planned to increase the level of General and vocational education, demographic change And composition of employees, measures to control traffic And personnel.
In the second section, "Improvement of working conditions, protection and strengthening of health of workers" is expected to eliminate production hazards to life and health of people, lead to nervous-mental overloads, prevention and reduction of occupational accidents and diseases, improvement of health services.
The third section of the social development plan "the Improvement of living standards, improvement of housing and commercial and cultural conditions of employees" covers activities aimed at improving the wages, material and moral incentives. Great importance is attached in this section to improve housing and living conditions, childcare facilities, recreation, cultural and household service workers. Particular attention is paid to the reduction of the share of workers with low wages and income per one family member. In addition, the plan funds allocated for housing construction, assistance to workers in individual and cooperative construction.
The fourth section of the plan "Increasing the labor and public activeness of employees, the development of self-government" contains actions for growth of industrial and social activity of team members, economic, legal, moral, aesthetic and physical education, development of sports and cultural-mass work.
The social development plan should be agreed with the relevant measures for social development and the protection of workers, developing trade Union organization.
So, the complexity of the system of production relations between people entering the workforce require the use of complex methods of influence on the team and its individual members, both economic and organizational-administrative and social methods. In the rational combination of these methods — the key to effective activity of the enterprise.