Managing conflicts in the team
The concept of conflict can be defined as the lack of agreement between two or more parties that can be individuals or groups. Each party doing everything possible to pass her point of view and prevents the other side to do the same.
In the minds of people conflict most often identified with aggression, threats, disputes, hostility, war and so on.
In the result there is a perception that the conflict is always undesirable and it must be dealt with immediately, as soon as it occurs. This attitude can be traced in the writings of authors belonging to the school of scientific management and the administrative-bureaucratic approach. These views due to the fact that the effective functioning of the organization was considered by the supporters of these schools as a violation of the rules of procedures for cooperation between officials in the conditions of existence of rational organizational structure. It was believed that the immediate elimination of the conflict should be carried out using the above components of the organizations.
Supporters of the school of "human relations", also believed that conflict is evil and should be avoided. Recognizing the possible conflict between the goals of the individual and the organization between line and functional units, between the authority and capacity of officials etc., they viewed the conflict as a sign of an inefficient organization and poor management. Therefore, in their opinion, conflicts do not arise if a good relationship among its members.
Modern views are that even in the presence of effective management in organizations, some conflicts are not only possible, but even desirable. Of course, the conflict is not always positive. In some cases, it can interfere with the satisfaction of individual needs and goals of the organization. For example, if a team is people who are prone to disputes, other team members can share the views of this man, not to engage in a dispute and to avoid conflict, although the point of view of the lover bet can be wrong.
However, in many cases, the conflict helps to reveal the diversity of views provides additional information that helps to identify alternative solutions to problems. This makes the process of group decision-making more efficient and gives people the opportunity to meet their own needs for respect and power. It can also lead to more effective implementation of plans, policies and projects, as the discussion of different points of view on these documents is to transform them into life.
So, conflict can be functional and enhance the organization's effectiveness or dysfunction - zonelink and lead to a decline in personal satisfaction, group collaboration, and organizational effectiveness. The role of conflict depends on how efficiently they are run. And in order to manage the conflict, it is necessary to understand the causes of the conflict. Often leaders believe that the main reason of conflicts is a clash of personalities. However, the analysis shows that often blame need to move and other factors. To examine methods of management of the conflict situation, you must first determine the basic types of conflicts, causes and its solution.
There are four basic types of conflict: ser - nooobody the conflict that erupted interpersonal conflict, conflict between the individual and the group, intergroup conflict.
Intrapersonal conflict. This type of conflict does not meet the definition that was made earlier. However, its potential dysfunctional consequences similar to those of other types of conflicts. It may be in various forms. One of the most common forms of role conflict when to one person conflicting demands about what should be the result of her labor. For example, the head of the Department or section of a Department store may require that the seller was in the Department and provide customers information and services. Later head can Express their dissatisfaction with the fact that the seller too much time to spend on customers, and little attention is paid to the completion of the Department of goods. And the seller perceives guidance as to what to do and what not to do as incompatible.
Intrapersonal conflict can also occur due to the fact that the production requirements are not consistent with personal needs or values. For example, you plan yourself a trip out of town for the holiday weekend. However, at the end of the work week your boss puts in front of you the problem which requires work on it during the weekend. It is clear that viewing of your plans will lead to nutrixo conflict. Often there are cases nutrixo conflict in connection with the necessity of changing the place of residence of the employee, although it may lead to promotion or increase in wages. Intrapersonal conflict occurs frequently, if not balanced the duties, rights and powers of the worker, that is, when he is responsible for the performance of which he does not have the appropriate rights and powers. As a result of such employee, or is constantly under stress or not performing duties and assigns certain rights to the proper performance of duties. In all these cases, there is intrapersonal conflict.
Most of the intrapersonal conflict is associated with low level of satisfaction from work, lack of s in the organization, which is part of the employee.
The unfolding of interpersonal conflict. This type of conflict is most prevalent. In organizations it is manifested in different ways. Most often it is a struggle of leaders for limited resources, capital or labor, for the use of particular equipment, for approval of certain ideas. Each of these leaders believed that since resources are limited, it needs to convince superiors to allocate those resources to him, and not someone else.
Erupted interpersonal conflict manifests as a clash of personalities. People with different character traits, attitudes and values sometimes are simply unable to coexist. Typically, the views and goals of these people is very different.
The conflict between the individual and the group. Production groups establish certain norms of behavior. Everyone must comply with them in order to admit an informal group and thus meet their social needs. However, if the expectations of the group come into conflict with the expectations of the individual, a conflict may occur. For example, someone wants to earn more, or exceeding standards, working overtime, and the group considers such behaviour as negative.
Between individual identity and group conflict can occur if the person takes a position different from the position of the group. For example, when discussing at the workshop the possibility of increasing sales volume, most will assume that this can be achieved by lowering the price. However, there are people who thinks that this tactic will reduce profits and create the opinion that the company products are of lower quality than the products of competitors. Though the man perceives the interests of the company, but her opinion differs from the opinion of the group and can be a source of conflict.
A similar conflict may arise in the performance of official duties of the head: between the need to provide appropriate performance and to comply with the rules and procedures of the organization. The head can be forced to use disciplinary measures that may be unpopular with subordinates. Then the group can strike back is to change the attitude of the head and possibly reduce productivity.
Intergroup conflict. Any organization consists of certain formal and informal groups, between which conflicts can arise. Often conflict occurs because of differences in goals or interests of functional structural groups. For example, the trade Department trade organizations interested in increasing sales of goods, and the audit requires the closure of a number of enterprises in the inventory to check the state of conservation values, although it is associated with loss of turnover. A conflict situation arises.
Intergroup conflict may arise in the course of the struggle between the structural units for material, labor or financial resources.
So, any type of conflict has its own reasons. The most common of these are: limited resources, interdependence of tasks, differences in goals, differences in views, interests and values, in the manner of behavior and life experiences, poor communication.
The limitation of resources. Even in the largest organizations, resources are always limited. Leadership is difficult enough to decide how. share physical, human and financial resources between different groups to achieve common goals of the organization. If you devote most of these resources under one leader, subordinate or the group, then others will get less of their share.
Thus, resource allocation almost always leads to conflict.
The interdependence of tasks. The possibility of conflict exists wherever one person or group depend on to complete tasks from another person or group. Because all organizations are systems consisting of interrelated elements, with inadequate work of one Department or human interdependency of tasks can cause conflict.
Differences in order. The possibility of conflict in organizations increases depending on what greater specialization and division into units. This is because the specialized units themselves form their goals and can pay more attention to their achievement than the achievement of the objectives of the entire organization.
Differences in perception and values. View of the situation depends on the desire to achieve a particular goal. Instead, to objectively assess the situation, people may consider only those views, alternatives that, in their opinion, a positive for the group and personal needs.
The differences in values is a common cause of conflict. For example, a slave believes that he always has the right to Express their opinions, whereas the Manager is convinced that he can do it only when asked and to do what he is told.
The differences in behaviors and life experiences can increase the possibility of conflict. As a rule, almost always there are people who are aggressive, hostile and ready to argue any point. Such people (choleric) creating an atmosphere of conflict.
Unsatisfactory communication. Poor transfer of information is both a cause and a consequence of conflict, making it difficult for individual employees or group to understand the situation or the views of others. If the user is unable to bring to the attention of subordinates certain innovations and to convince them of the necessity and profitability for them, subordinates can react in such a way that there is a conflict between management and subordinates or among subordinates. Such conflicts often arise and are exacerbated by the inability of managers to develop and convey to subordinates accurate job descriptions, responsibilities, requirements to work.
There are several ways to control the conflict situation, which can be divided into two categories: structural and interpersonal.
Structural methods include: explanation of work requirements, the use of coordination and integration mechanisms, the establishment of institutional coordination purposes, the use of a reward system.
Clarification of job requirements. This is one of the best methods of prevention venoum conflict. Its essence is to explain what results are expected from the employee or unit. This should be determined by parameters such as the performance level. expected path of information flow, system of authority and responsibility, procedures and regulations.
Coordination and integration mechanisms. As a coordinating mechanism to manage the conflict situation, use the chain of command, i.e., a clearly defined hierarchy of authority and interaction of people, procedures, decision-making and information flows in the organization. If two or more subordinates are in conflict, it can be solved, assigning them to the joint chief to make a decision.
The overarching goals of the enterprise. Effective achievement of these goals requires joint effort of two or more employees, groups or departments. So, the combined efforts of employees to achieve a common goal reduce the likelihood of conflict between them.
The structure of the remuneration system. Rewards can be used as a method to avoid or control conflict, exercising influence on people's behavior. People who contribute to the achievement of comprehensive corporate objectives, helping other groups and try to come to a comprehensive solution to problems should be rewarded with gratitude, award, recognition or promotion. Thus it is necessary to avoid encouraging disruptive behavior of individuals or groups.
Of a conflict, its sharpness, the tendency to develop or, on the contrary, to the extinction depends on the personal qualities of the people involved in the situation. The conflict is quickly resolved, if at least one of the participants in the conflict possesses interpersonal methods (styles) of conflict situations. There are six such styles: avoidance, smoothing, forcing, compromise, and problem solving.
Evasion. This style is that the person tries to escape from the conflict. The basic ways of evasion from the conflict is avoidance of situations that provoke contradictions and unican discuss issues that may cause disagreement.
Smoothing. This style is characterized by behavior that is dictated by the conviction that it is not necessary to be angry, because it eventually affects everyone. On the contrary, we need to encourage a sense of community among team members.
Coercion. Under this prevailing style attempts to force us to accept their point of view in any way. The one who tries to do it, not interested in the opinions of others. The person who uses this style is aggressive and to influence the government uses coercion. This style is effective in situations where the head has more power over subordinates. The disadvantage of this style is that it suppresses the initiative of subordinates, creates a greater probability of underestimation of all the factors, because it represents only one point of view.
Compromise. This style is characterized by adopting the point of view of the other side, but only to a certain limit. The ability to compromise is highly valued in managerial situations, as it minimizes the ill will and often gives the opportunity to resolve the conflict to the satisfaction of all. However, the use of this style at an early stage of a conflict can damage dansoman problems and not give the opportunity to evaluate all alternative approaches to solving it.
The solution to the problem. This style is characterized by the recognition RSense of opinion and willingness to see other points of view to understand the causes of the conflict and find a solution acceptable to all parties.
So, in difficult situations where a variety of approaches and accurate information is key to sound decision-making, the emergence of conflict situations even need to promote, using them as a means of solving problems. However, it is necessary to own methods of solution and exit from conflict situations.