Psychological qualities of the employee and their use in the management process
Communicating with other people, we learn the features and qualities of their personalities. What is the identity of the person in social and psychological understanding?
Under the person understand the person as a conscious, intelligent being, possessing speech, the ability to work, and are in certain relationships with other people.
In the control system, as in any other, personality is in all the diversity of its mental qualities that define human behavior in relation to other people, the community and society in General. Human behavior is a manifestation of mental and physiological processes which occur in the apparatus of its higher nervous activity. Therefore, knowledge of the psychological structure of personality involves the study of her mental qualities, which are manifested in the interaction of the individual with the environment.
There is no need to consider all the psychological qualities of a personality, focus only on those that are most important for the Manager from the point of view of managing people. These qualities include the ability, emotionality, temperament, character and basic needs and motives for labor, the dominant form of communication.
Under abilities understand the anatomical and physiological and. mental qualities of people that enable them to learn certain kinds of knowledge and skills to perform useful activities. As a rule, the problem of capacity care about the art, science, literature, etc. however, an equally important problem is a person with abilities to work accountant or economist, goods Manager or engineer, even the clerk or Secretary-typist.
A leader needs to surround himself with people who have the ability to perform their duties. In the case when at a particular workplace is a man who has no aptitude for this activity, inevitable error, miscalculation disadvantages. This area requires constant monitoring and attention from the head, but that is not a guarantee of trouble.
How to identify a person ability to a specific activity? Now, a variety of test methods, but even they have a recommending character. Much safer having the ability in humans to perform a specific activity can be defined, depending on the speed of acquisition of skills on performance of work, which are part of her responsibilities.
Skills are ways in which automatic or semi-automatic execution of the components of the labor process. Skills to perform job duties are formed due to the fact that the PR and ability to this activity in the human brain formed a sustainable supply chain of neurons that allow for the repetition of similar (and sometimes heterogeneous) operations, and to perform them without thinking in advance the sequence or methods of their implementation. It is obvious that in a market economy, we return to the system of employment with a trial period or practicalities this technique with contractual employment. These forms of employment provide an opportunity basically for a certain period to monitor the formation of skills to work from the applicant and decide on the continuation or termination of employment.
The next important quality of a person's identity is emotionality, which is manifested in the strength, nature and direction of her emotions. Under emotions, understand emotional human reaction to external stimuli. Distinguish between positive and negative emotions. The Manager needs to build their relations with subordinates in such a way that they were dominated by positive emotions and minimal negative. Man, that is captured by negative emotions, are unlikely to work effectively.
Emotions owns all life. However, if animals have emotions due to the physical impact, the person they can be caused by physical way, and word. Therefore, the Manager should be very careful in selection of words and expressions when referring to a subordinate as they are often not noticed by the head of verbal carelessness or even a gesture can cause a recent negative emotional state and affect the effectiveness of his work.
Cannot be transferred to subordinate their negative emotions, which could be home or when dealing with higher heads or other subordinates.
You also need to know the degree of emotion of their subordinates in order to be prepared for the emotional explosion when dealing with them. In addition, if the employees are predominantly women that are more emotional in comparison with men, to resolve emotional conflicts, the Manager should consider this factor. Finally, each person in the case of the monotonous flow of his life feels the need for emotional discharge. In other words, "it is bad when all is well." The Manager should create conditions for the emotional discharge of employees. Large enterprises have created a special room of emotional discharge, where workers can compensate for a lack of emotions through the course of the production routine of life. Emotional discharge can arrange, and the Manager, using simple methods. Experience shows that often a kind word, a bouquet of flowers to the woman birthday, the compliment to the employee, creating a good joke not only in this luvini, but in others a positive mood for the whole working day.
To important psychological qualities of the employee, to consider the Manager when constructing the strategy and tactics of control, belongs to the temperament.
Temperament is the individual psychological characteristic of a person, which manifests itself in force, tension, speed and balance of her mental processes.
Science distinguishes between four types of temperament, due to the peculiarities of nervous activity of man: the sanguine, phlegmatic, choleric and melancholic*"
Name four types of nervous activity of the person associated with the name of the ancient Greek physician and philosopher Hippocrates (VI century to n. e). Hippocrates believed that the unequal proportion between the mucus, blood and bile in the human body is the reason for different reactions to external circumstances. Some people in the body is dominated by blood (gr.— sangue), in others the bile (gr.— hall), in the third — slime (gr.— phlegm) in the fourth — black bile (gr.— Melan hole). The idea Gpodata to divide people into four groups came to us through the ages, and types.
Of course, this classification, like many others, is somewhat arbitrary. Pure temperament does not happen. In the psyche of a particular person has traits of all four types of temperament. However, usually one of them dominates, which can be attributed to a specific person to a specific type of temperament.
Knowledge of the temperament required of a subordinate Manager for individually-psychological approach to the person, understanding its capabilities, proper placement of people in areas of work, the choice of the form of orders and instructions.
The sanguine temperament is characterized by strong, balanced, lively type of higher nervous activity. The sanguine person easily switches from one activity to another, has a good performance, balanced behavior, easy in contacts with other people. It is emotional people who are proactive, adaptable, rapidly becoming part of the team, do not worry in case of failures. However, the sanguine inclined to avoid difficulties, to rush into making decisions. For active use sanguine in the course of employment must be constantly put before them new tasks, not forgetting the quality control of the execution of the tasks assigned earlier.
Phlegmatic temperament — strong, balanced, calm type of higher nervous activity. People with phlegmatic temperament is extremely workable, but difficult to switch from one species of work to another, it is hard to convince to knock off the intended path. Phlegmatic tend to develop a system of truths, a thorough approach to solving production problems.
and the Choleric temperament is characterized by neuravnoveshennoe, temper behavior, "a tendency to conflict. For the choleric is decisive for the speed of actions and decisions, increased emotionality and potisnutosti, inconsistency, commitment to leadership.
Melancholic temperament refers to the weak type of higher nervous activity, characterized by increased concentration on their own experiences, but the sensitivity to everything that happens newcomerbands, physiologically caused by common types of nerve. systems commonly define the terms — sanguine, choleric, phlegmatic, melancholic.
Melancholic — where people who feel the attitudes of others and show the same sharpness spitalieri. This people are honest, conscientious, well manifest themselves in audit work.
However, decisive for human behavior is temperament and character. Under nature, we must understand the set of most pronounced mental traits that determine individual action and behavior.
To know the nature of man is to know the essential properties that are typical for it, which steadily appear with a certain consistency in the actions, attitude to work, to himself and to personal values. Knowledge of human nature gives the opportunity to predict how she would act in certain situations. For example, knowing the sensitivity of the companion, we are confident that in difficult times, he will support us, will not refuse to help.
The word "nature" people use in everyday life to determine the strength of the water, perseverance, toughness, sharpness in relationships with others. Slabovia people are called "spineless". It's not quite right: every person has its own character — a set of qualities that distinguish it from other people. However, when we say that a person has a strong character, we mean that this person has singleness of purpose. Character is manifested in various spheres of spiritual life and human activities.
The basic meaning of human life — work. Attitude to work — a clear indication of characterological manifestations of personality. The work reflects the will (strong will helps to overcome tiredness, laziness, mobilizing spiritual forces of the individual against the obstacles to achieving the goal), but also such character traits as diligence, initiative, creativity, the Opposite would be laziness, inertia, conservatism.
In relation of man to himself manifest such traits as self-esteem, modesty, pride, shyness, obrazovati etc. In case of erroneous perception the person may develop selfishness and even self-centeredness (when the focus person is holding only themselves, their feelings, their identity, in spite of the feelings and status of others).
Traits that Express the relation of man to others, can also be positive (humanism, compassion, teamwork) and negative (isolation, indifference, rudeness).
In relation to social and personal values are identified such traits as punctuality, respect for nature, things, monuments, objects of art, such negative qualities as extravagance, lack of discipline.
From the wealth of personality traits distinguish the main types of them: moral traits — compassion, sensitivity, attention to detail; strong-willed — determination, perseverance, firmness; emotional — temper, tenderness, passion.
Spinipes on some positive qualities of character. These include moral education, completeness, wholeness, certainty, strength, firmness and poise.
Moral education as the trait is manifested in behavior and orientation of the individual, humane treatment of others, tact, sensitivity, ability to live and work in a team.
The fullness of nature testifies to the versatility of the aspirations and Hobbies of the person, diversity of activity. Such people have inner wealth and activity.
Integrity is the absence of contradictions in aspirations and interests, the unity of words and deeds.
Certainty of character is reflected in the stability of human behavior in accordance with beliefs that have developed from it. Of such a man one can predict how it will behave in certain conditions.
Strength of character is evident in the energy with which man attains the goal. People of strong character to overcome difficulties and obstacles.
Strength of character is evident in the action sequences and the human resistance in the conscious defense of his views and decisions.
Balance of character is the behavior that allows a person to control myself in difficult circumstances.
The study of nature as an integral element of the human psyche revealed the presence of three elements that form it: psycho-physiological hereditary characteristics, environmental influences and self-education. As a result of such mutual combinations of the elements in the world no two people with the same character. The variety of characters is also due to the richness of shades of the individual character traits.
For example, when we say that the nature of man is inherent such a trait as accuracy, individually they can be in the neatness, clarity, pedantism, the ability to observe the words etc. can be customized any other trait.
Because a person's character is formed under the influence of these three elements is erroneous common assertion about the impossibility of changing what has already happened in humans. Experience shows that the nature of man with the age is not only growing but also changing. Here is essential environmental effects, including the head. Knowing the character of the slave, it is possible to allocate positive and negative features. The task of the leader is to identifying the negative traits of the slave, to help him get rid of them and find the positive.
The process of perfection of human nature is associated with the production of her position in life, that is sustainable, responsible attitude to work, society, other people, to ourselves. It turns out ;there are attitudes and motives, goals and values that guide the individual in their activities.
Distinguish four types of human life position: social activity, social inertia, consumer attitude to life and antisocial.
The position of the social activity is characterized by such personality traits of the person, as a sense of responsibility, social (collective) responsibilities. These qualities are usually combined with energy, hard work, competence.
The position of social inertia characteristic of people who are conscientious about their responsibilities, but combine this with a weak sense of community, of responsibility for the common good. The administrative system that existed in our country, contributed to the formation of the majority of people the position of social inertia, because they have seen that shows social activity often did not stem from internal motives of others, and was a means of achieving careerist success, receiving of social benefits. Positive changes in our society: glasnost, democratization, the possibility of acquiring personal economic independence contribute to the formation position of social activity.
A number of people produced consumer attitude to life.
They are characterized by the dominance of individual interests over collective and public, selfishness and lack of spirituality in everyday life. Such people tend to take the initiative only when it is personally profitable. They often seek power, but again on the basis of selfish motives.
The Manager, whose team have any employees standing in the position of consumer attitude to life, should be able to use such people for the benefit of the organization (enterprise). As a rule, the main vehicle for this are skillful construction of the system of payment and incentives, which would encourage such people for their own interests objectively act in the interests of the collective.
Antiespia orientation of employees is rarely detected directly in the process of production and economic activity. To people with this orientation include thieves, bribe-takers, bullies and other anticomplex elements.
An important characteristic of the individual, without knowledge of which is essential to the effective management of people, there is also a form of relationship of the individual with the group — conformity, i.e. the degree of agreement with the group.
General 'world picture', common goals, values and norms of a particular social group mainly determine the thoughts and behaviour of every member of this group. The consensus of opinion of the staff not directly linked to the individual level of psychological flexibility. In addition, the failure to perceive the opinion of the majority of the team in some cases, it may only mean that this opinion does not coincide with common goals and interests.
The consent of the individual with the team has not said about the nature of this consent and can mean two fundamentally different positions: a valid perception of collective norms, agreed with them, that is, collectivism and masking on perception of these norms of apathy, social inertia.
The opposite of conformism, non-conformism can also have two options. There are times when one person deliberately and fundamentally convinced of the rightness of their position, opposing team wins. For example, in the team store there is a man who is convinced of the wrongness of the behavior of other employees, who allow violations of trade rules. Very often non-conformism goes into actual juxtaposition of the individual to the collective, marnello, excessive arrogance, etc. To influence such people need to internally demonstrate the real, not imaginary, the results of their work, the level of training them.
Man is the most important resource of production. The effectiveness of use depends on the effectiveness of all other resources: material, technical, financial. This feature of human resource production is that if the cost of all other decreases due to their moral and physical aging, the cost of human resource increases due to the increase in the skills of people and they gain practical experience.
For a long time in relation to the person as a resource of production was dominated by a simplified representation. The worker was viewed as an inert tool that is waiting for orders and requires strict control. The attention of the Manager focused primarily on the organization of production and the labor process, finding efficient ways to perform those or other works. Completely ignored the individual differences between people. Mechanically approached to the issues of increase or decrease of labor productivity: the material was stimulated by a proportional increase of productivity and respectively testimonialse Lee was punished reduction of productivity or breach of discipline. Among the motives singled out two: the motive of obtaining more earnings as a prerequisite the acquisition of a larger quantity of goods and the motive of fear of job loss as a means of existence.
However, in the 30-ies of our century research scientists in developed countries have shown that the approach of "incentive and punishment" has exhausted itself as a means of increasing productivity.
Modern management philosophy prefers no effect on the man himself, and given her real goals, values and attitudes, expectations and needs and combine them with the goals of the organization (enterprise). The person who shares the objectives and understands the value your organization is able to establish for itself problems, to find solutions to them and to exercise self-control. Thus man moved from external motivation to self-motivation. However, the self-motivation of an employee is possible only in the presence of certain objective conditions, which include the satisfaction of primary needs of the worker, high production culture, a real government.
The principle of "the capacity from the person" is clearly understood by most foreign firms.
Efficient conduct of Affairs in them is based on focusing on the success of each employee and providing him with opportunities for self-realization.
Controlling people, you need to consider a number of aspects and nuances that work is very delicate and not noticeable, but in the end, determine the success or failure of the enterprise.
For example, people do not perceive when leadership says staff their staff, "hard worker", and supervisor-subordinate demonically calls "my workers, my workers". It is better to use the terms "people", "our staff", "our employees".
People love to get rewarded for hard work in the form of premiums, co-payments, etc. However, it appears that this is also important for the form it is received. For example, people are very happy to receive the award, which gives the highest head of the company, than when it is paid according to the list through the cashier.
In addition to recognition, people tend to feel the trust of the leadership, which must be real, because they feel good when they are trusted and when not. Manager can pretend that he relies on his subordinates, and to only do that to control their every move.
People tend to seek pleasure in different forms. One of them is good working condition. People like to work in good conditions and in a good location to get around was beautiful scenery, wonderful air.
To work effectively people also promoting exciting" atmosphere in the workplace, a sense of total excitement, impulse, movement, action. As a rule, people tend to stress all of their physical and spiritual forces in the formulation of urgent, complex task that requires initiative, creativity, mobilizing knowledge and experience.
People like the atmosphere of a United family in the workplace, that is, mutual respect, mutual help, mutual aid, solidarity and unity. In a large enterprise to achieve a family atmosphere is extremely difficult. Therefore, it is necessary to divide it into small and economically independent units. The size of such units where people can feel freely and independently in its decisions and actions depend on the specificity of industrial and commercial activities of the enterprise or organization.
The main advantage of the atmosphere of a United family is a permanent readiness of employees to help each other, a sense of real reciprocity.
Modern trends in the organization and stimulation of work in leading foreign firms are characterized by focus on increasing share of free time for workers. These forms are a fixed wage that does not depend on the time spent in the workplace, combined with awards for the results of the work of the entire team for a certain period, flexible labour, etc. it encourages employees to save working time in various forms — from time for the technological operation to the search of potential time savings by reducing the delivery time of products (goods) to consumers.
People are happy to receive from the company such award, which they cannot resolve themselves, for example, a festive dinner at the upscale restaurant at the expense of the company, a prestigious tourist trip etc.
An important incentive to increase the efficiency of human labor is also a contact management with working families, warning them about the success of the employees, greetings anniversaries, solution of household
Therefore, the control effect is considerably increased by the accounting and the proper use of the human factor in production and management.