Psychology and ethics management activities
The psychological aspect of work of the Manager is most clearly demonstrated in the course of personal contacts with subordinates, issue orders, motivate and encourage labor and monitoring actions of the staff.
Issuance of subordinate verbal instructions at first glance it seems quite a simple procedure. However, in reality it is not. You need to be able to accurately and clearly formulate the problem and give guidance. Each order of the head is characterized by three parameters: the fact that he wants to tell a subordinate what he really said to him; the slave understood, heard and accepted it for execution. The deviation between the understanding of what was said and heard depends primarily on how the supervisor relates to a subordinate, and the subordinate to the head.
This subjective factor to discreetly interfere in the connection between said head word and its image which arises in the listener. The success of the work largely depends on the fact how clearly the leader gives orders and how quickly and accurately understand the order employee.
The head is necessary, to know the power of the word as factor of control of the higher nervous activity of man. A status word is an instrument of power and influence, therefore, requires caution in application. However, note that the written or spoken word is, first, the familiar image of the subject is recognised or a particular phenomenon and, secondly, it is a concept, that is, a prearranged signal which reflects the logic of the head.
The word is associated with a way that enables and disables the program of our actions and behavior, regulates the psyche, creating the so-called second signal system of the person — verbally, that is our response to the words, whereas the first signal system is our reaction to immediate stimuli coming to the brain through the senses — the sounds, the lights, etc.
To achieve the desired effect, the Manager must choose the appropriate words and manner of oral orders, given the situation. So, in one case you can simply specify the inaccuracy in the performance of any work operations, and the other — what we need to do so, and not otherwise, using the word for persuasion.
When dealing with people of the same social status, the Manager must Express their wishes in the form of a request, not an order. If he wants to show his respect for the slave, you don't have to ignored the request. However, asking should not, like how the head turns to the subordinate for affection. The slave understands that the request of the head does not imply a ban, but a reference to the action and yet is a manifestation of respect for the subordinate.
When subordinates get used to the fact that the head gives orders in the form of requests, more dramatic tone you can use as an effective disciplinary West. This can cause misunderstandings, but such a reaction subordinates testifies to their willingness to execute the order.
When working with beginners, the direction issued in the form of a request, is also effective. The head will do better, if not first, they are strictly demanding, and will ask you to take note of his further instructions.
However, requests should not be considered the only method of psychological impact on the slave. In acute situations, when the subordinate is indifferent to the request of a Director shall not ask for, and strictly require and even apply to a subordinate commanding tone, to use his power man Manager.
The leadership is often a question arises about the degree of confidence in the subordinate and granting it autonomy in dealing with matters of official business. Obviously, you need to use the rule that degree of confidence must be directly proportional to his ability to subordinate self-control.
Psychological approach is also needed in the implementation of stimulation and motivation of employees to productive work.
People react differently to different stimuli, and even the same people's reaction is always the same. A person gets used to the stimulus and ceases to respond to them, so the Manager must possess an Arsenal of incentives and constantly update them. It should be noted that the employee feels worse than the motivation, which acts on the outside, as often sees it as the means by which they are manipulated. Therefore, you need to try to shift the focus from the motivational impact on employee appearance to the direction of formation of his independent position, which becomes a source of intrinsic motivation.
For this a leader needs to have a certain Arsenal of motivational tools, the main ones are: informing about the results of work; motivation method of sharing experience and knowledge between supervisors and subordinates;
the tune of "first day";
opening career prospects;
awareness of the importance of the work performed;
participation in decision-making;
the elasticity of working time;
the ability to use incentives and penalties.
Informing about the results of labor. Famous English psychologist Broun argues that the lack of information about the results of their own work often causes frustaci (disruption of consciousness). Psychologists, he writes, has established that for a person who works on something, the incentive is to inform about the quality of work.
Information about the results of their labor facilitates the learning process and is useful not only for the child but for the head, which need to inform a subordinate makes further analysis of its results. The problem of informing about the results of the work closely connected with the problem of the performance indicators, because their presence is an indispensable condition of informing about the result of labor.
Motivation method of sharing experience and knowledge between supervisors and subordinates. The application of this method provides for the following forms:
1) the leader should show interest in any initiative aimed at improving the business;
2) the head has kindly taken the initiative, which aims to improve the minor issues. Ignoring them leads to the fact that the slave loses interest in this area, whereas in the future it can act with greater initiative;
3) even if the subordinate sentences are weakly developed and not brought to practical use, the Manager must not reject them, but to help to Refine;
4) if a subordinate plan proposed for the improvement of the work turned out to be completely unsuitable, the Manager must thoroughly and kindly to explain it;
5) if a bad idea slave come across to another 7 successful opinion leader needs to remember the original source;
6) suggestions for improvement of the work cannot be regarded as self-evident, any such proposal needs to be stimulated.
The tune of "first day". A factor having a motivational effect over a long period, is the impression which arises from the employee's first acquaintance with the future work. On the question of what experiences the person left of the hundredth or thousandth day of labor in the organization, the employee is unable to give a specific answer, but If to ask him about the first day in office, he has usually anything to say.
So dodle to make efforts in order to organize the first hours, days, weeks of work the new member of the team.
Opening career prospects. People who are just starting to work, compared to older people, who have traversed the path of hard work, has a relatively large margin of strength and energy, not expending them fully in the ongoing professional activities. If she sees a future promotion, they are apt the stamina and energy to direct the training. If such' prospects she can't see, then this energy can be lost or used in an undesirable direction.
Fair wages. For the problem of motivation is of great importance to the principle of equitable distribution of payroll. In this regard, it is important to apply the same performance measures for all members of the team. It is necessary that the indicators were understandable for employees in respect of whom they apply, would allow to compare the contribution of individuals in the performance of the organization.
Professional pride. In the team who knows that particular area of work will succeed, which is seen and properly assessed, increased belief in themselves and increases the desire to achieve new successes.
Participation in decision-making is an important motivational tool head (detail see 1.3.3).
The elasticity of working time. The problem is that the working time during which the worker management apparatus needs to be in the workplace based on the needs of the team (or colleagues) or for visitor services, does not coincide with the time when the employee performs their tasks, without contact with people. We are talking about the fact that the duration of this second part of the working day (subject to certain limits) the staff has established for themselves.
Indirect consultation. The idea redirective advice is that the employee frankly talking head about their difficulties, is gradually gaining balance, begins calmly look at the situation that has developed, independently and correctly solve the problems that concerned him. Indirect consultation is a friendly listening slave, in a state of strong emotional tension.
This is done in order to facilitate the establishment of the moral balance of the subordinate.
The ability of the leader to use rewards and punishments have always been considered as the main motivational point for the behavior of subordinates.
The reward for the correct behavior reinforces the desire to continue the marked way of behavior, that is positive. In turn, the recovery to stop behavior that can lead to punishment, but the punishment causes a negative reaction as to who punishes.
The technique of rewards is as follows. If the promoted employee, it is necessary to avoid uncertain praise. Praise should specify the work or the part that deserves celebration. Any encouragement works the better, the shorter the time between action and reward.
The system of penalties should be based on the following principles: to have a safety value to be logically associated with the violations; imposed on employees regardless of their position in the team, their positions, and to function continuously.
Thus, the mechanism of action becomes a system that operates consistently and objectively, eliminating influence of personal connections, is clearly associated with violations, and not causing self hatred.
Psychological approach also requires the process of monitoring the activities of subordinates. There are people who are trying to avoid control because they do not cope with the responsibilities or are unwilling in good faith to comply with them. The first need of assistance, and control over their work should be carried out in such a way that he helped in the work. The second should be more demanding and strict. In any case, the control of the head should not be perceived by subordinates as punishment for mistakes or distrust him.
Controlling the work of subordinates, it is also necessary to take into account their individual characteristics. One, for example, like when they are praised for any success. Praise activates them, and so often it is advisable to approach such employees and learn about their work. Others, on the contrary, irritates the excessive attention that is perceived as regular checks. Qualified employees who conscientiously perform their duties,
no need to bother unless you absolutely need. In all cases, the need to avoid micromanagement over the employee, because this creates a dependence of the subordinate restricts his initiative and soon such relationships can become a burden for both the subordinate and the supervisor.
Consequently, the use of psychological methods of influence on people should be based on knowledge of their individual characteristics and the ability to use this knowledge in the overall interests of the organization.