Psychology of communication

Hops. Management

Communication management is the exchange of information, in which the Manager receives the information necessary to make effective decisions and communicate them to employees. If communication is poor, decisions can be wrong, and people will misunderstand what he wants from them, the head, and can finally worsen the relationship between people. The effectiveness of communication often determines the quality of decisions and how they actually will be implemented.
Communication is a communication between the transmitter and the receiver (sender and receiver) and contains a message. Almost all areas of human experience based on any one form of communication. Still, whether we are talking about language, symbols. (writing), movement (gestures), or spontaneous manifestations (facial expressions, voice). It is always transmitted messages or signals. Every noticed how expressive form and content of communicative processes affect our feelings, perceptions and decision recognition or criticism, expressing caution.
Mainly between people there are two planes (levels) of communication: the plane of content and the plane of links (relations).
The plane belongs to the content of the message represents information about the state of things or events. For example, the employee is not here, classes will start next Monday etc. the Contents may be important or unimportant, right or wrong, relevant or irrelevant and to have a different value for the recipient and counterpart.
It should be noted that the notion of content belongs not only the actual information that is transmitted from the sender to the receiver explicitly, ay metacommunity.
The concept of "metacommunity" means that we read between the lines and what is the true content of the communication. Such information is often useful from the point of view of their shadow content.
For example, our proposal to establish business contacts receive an answer like this: we are glad to establish with you business contacts, but our technical capabilities do not allow you to complete your order. Obviously, partner or already has a similar order and loaded up their production capacity, or we made a mistake in choosing a partner, assessing its production capacity.
The plane of links (relations) between people covers the treatment, perception or deviation of sympathy or antipathy, hatred or love. Often the relationship is not declared and people prefer the plane of content, then the message has a veiled character. For example, sports clothes that he wears, is misplaced. The statement applies mainly to the formal framework of instruction. In fact, this statement can mean that the person is too fat to wear a Jogging suit that she has no taste, broke;the rules and in the end you just unsympathetic. If man were you cute, then a tracksuit she would not harm. It would be possible to use this point of view that it is extraordinary that the costume does not restrict her freedom, and the like.
In the case of negotiations or conferences, you should try to use the content plane, to eliminate the influence of likes and dislikes, often because you do not vote for the particular proposal, but because of who makes it. As a result, allow errors in communication, because they use different approaches.
Forms of communication are digital and analog communication.
All information is encoded using symbols, such as font, numbers — digital forms of communication. They can be used relatively accurately encode the message, and we are talking about accuracy above all mathematical and chemical formulae, even in the smallest details.
It is clear that digital communication is "sterile" in nature, that is free from emotions. This kind of communication has the disadvantage that often leads to misunderstandings. Errors can occur when sending using the wrong encoding by sender and recipient — for a wrong interpretation.
Often errors occur due to incorrect translation from one language to another.
On the contrary, analog communication is clear or reversed. Before this kind. communication belongs to the whole wordless communication, e.g., gestures, threats or touching. Map, bone abacus, a traditional clock face — examples of analog communication. This form of message, without any doubt, is not as accurate as digital, but it is more understandable and there's less errors. Example of a combination of analog and digtal communication can serve as speaking. The examples, drawings or network diagrams is also a useful combination digtal and analog Communic. First of all, analog communication is convenient to apply in the relations between people, it is possible to convey even the mood. For example, you could hold on a piece of paper a horizontal line as the zero axis, which would mean a neutral attitude. Than happier and happier a person feels, the higher the mark on this axis, and the worse the mood, the lower the level below the zero axis.
It is quite clear that the so-called analog channels can be much easier to find the plane relationship. This opens the possibility to identify (find out), or to solve interpersonal problems or conflicts. The mechanism for the perception of communicative messages can be illustrated using the so-called "Johor-window", named after Joseph Luft and Harry Gmane. This social-scientific model that reflects changes in the perception of communication, for example, in the process of formation of a group (collective).
This area is discussed in the training groups only indirectly.
The perception of information occurs during the communicative process. Communication process is the exchange of information between two or more people. The main objective of the communicative process — the understanding of information which is the subject of exchange, i.e. messages. However, the mere fact of sharing information does not guarantee effective communication of the people involved in the exchange. Each of us has dealt with cases of ineffective exchange of information. To better understand the process of exchange of information and the conditions of its effectiveness, you should be aware of the stages of the process, which involves two or more people. In the process of exchange of information it is possible to allocate four basic elements: the Sender, the person who generates ideas, or collects information and transmits it.
2. The message is the actual information encoded in characters.
3. The channel the means of transmitting information.
4. The recipient, the person who designed the information and
which interpreterpath her.
In the exchange of information sender and receiver go through several interconnected stages of the communication process. their task is to create a message and use the channel for transmission so that both sides realized the original idea.
It is difficult, because each stage is also the point at which meaning can be distorted or completely lost. To the interconnected stages are: conception of an idea;
encryption and channel selection;
The emergence of the idea. Information exchange begins with the formulation of ideas or selection of information. The sender decides which idea or message should be subject of exchange. Unfortunately, many attempts the exchange of information breaks down at this first stage, because the sender does not spend time thinking about ideas. It is important to remember that the idea has not yet acquired a form that is used to exchange information. The sender decided which concept he wants to make the subject of information exchange. To share effectively, it needs to consider many factors. For example, a Manager wishing to exchange information on the assessment results, should be clearly understood that the idea is to let subordinates specific information about their strong and weak traits and how you can improve the results of their work. The idea can not be vague General praise or criticism in the same behavior of subordinates.
Encryption and channel selection. Before you submit the idea, the sender should use symbols to encode it, using words, intonation and gestures. This encoding transforms idea into message.
The sender must also choose a channel that goes well with the type of symbols used for communication. To the known channels include the transmission of speech and written materials and electronic communications including computer networks, email, destray the like. If the channel is the physical embodiment of the characters, transmission is not possible. Painting sometimes deserves a thousand words of approval, but it is unsuitable for transmission on the phone. In this way can be unfulfilled simultaneous communication with all employees together.
If the channel is not very consistent with the idea that originated at the first stage, information exchange is less effective. For example, when the head, wanting to tell his subordinate about the inadmissibility of serious safety violations in the past, doing it over a Cup of coffee.
Obviously, it is not possible to transfer the idea of seriousness of the violations as effectively as in an official letter or statement at the meeting. It is clear that the departure of the subordinate notes about the exclusivity of his achievements does not give an idea about how important a contribution to the common cause, and therefore he will not be in the same way effective as direct talk with following official letter, which expressed gratitude, as well as the prize.
The choice of the means of communication should not be confined to a single channel. It is often desirable to use two means of communication in their combined or even more. The process is complicated because the sender has to determine the sequence of the use of these funds and determine the time intervals in a sequential information transfer.
Despite this, studies show that the simultaneous use of oral and written exchange of information, tend to be more effective than exchange of written information. Orientation to both channels causes more carefully prepared and written record of the situation. However, this does not mean that every exchange of information must be written. In this case, the flow of papers becomes unmanageable.
Transmission. In the third stage, the sender uses the channel for delivery of messages (encoded ideas or set of ideas) to the recipient. We are talking about the physical transmission of a message, which many people take over the communication process. And Decoding. After the message is transmitted by the sender, the recipient decodes it. Decoding is the translation of the symbols of the sender in the mind of the recipient. If the symbols chosen by the sender, have exactly the same value to the recipient, the latter would know that it meant the sender when he formulated his idea. If reaction to the idea is not required, the information exchange process is completed. Analyzing communication processes in organizations, mainly referring to people who talk in the process of personal contact or in groups at gatherings, meetings, talking on the phone or reading and writing notes, letters and reports. Although these cases account for the bulk of communication in organizations, communication in General is a complex process.
When talking about communication in organizations, it is necessary, obviously, to put three phenomena: direction of communication; filtering of communication (information); communication.
The direction of communication. Communication is based on the fact that one person (the sender) sends information that is perceived by another person (the recipient).
Model A
The sender-recipient
In this model there is no feedback, that is, the sender does not know or recipient took his information and, if so, how he perceived her. This is often observed in organizations: employee sends his messages to the leadership and more did not know about them.
So you should try to build a line of feedback in organizational communications that conform to a model:
Model B
It is possible to observe that the linear organization, built on a strictly hierarchical manner, often operates on the model A, whereas the model of the "open" organizational structure to the model.
Consequently, the recipient is able to understand the meaning of the message compared with those that matured in the mind of the sender. From the point of view of the supervisor, the information exchange should be considered effective if the recipient has demonstrated an understanding of the ideas by following the steps which are expected from him by the sender. Therefore, you receive feedback— message response group or partner to the actions or behaviour of the individual.
In the presence of a feedback the sender and the recipient change of communicative roles. The recipient becomes the sender, and passes through all the stages of the process of exchange of information for transfer of the response to the sender, which plays now the role of the recipient. The feedback can significantly improve the efficiency of information exchange. According to several studies, bilateral exchange of information (with opportunities for feedback) compared to unilateral (the feedback is missing), although it is slower, but more efficient and relieves tension, is more accurate and hence enhances confidence in the interpretation of the messages.
Feedback greatly improves the chances for effective exchange of information, allowing both parties to overcome the noise. In the language of information theory, noise is everything that distorts the meaning. Sources of noise that may create obstacles to information sharing, range from language to differences in perceptions that can distort the meaning of the message in the processes of encoding and decoding, to differences in organizational status between Manager and subordinates, which can hamper accurate transmission of information.
Certain noises are always present, so at each stage of the process of information exchange happens some distortion of its content. Typically, in the course of communication most of the noise manages to overcome and pass the right message. However, the high noise level can lead to significant loss of meaning and completely block an attempt to establish exchange of information.
In order for feedback to be effective, it needs to be more detailed and specific, direct, to consider the informational capabilities (capacity) of others, should not be a double reverse.
Filtering of information. When we receive the information, consciously or unconsciously filtered her, deprived of the noise filling. As you know from experience, the best filter for any information that is psychological, which exists primarily in our worldview, in our concept, so talking about the so-called "selective perception". This filter, which consists of our experience, our attitudes, judgments, there are both "bad" and "good". "Bad" because he gives us selective a subjective view that is not necessarily consistent with reality, and "good" because it has a protective function, that is, if we didn't have such a filter, we would have to capitulate before the avalanche of impressions and information, and the filter passes only certain information in a certain amount that you can handle.
Filtering of information is an effective means of improving the efficiency of communications. However, in organizations with a large number of hierarchical levels of control messages, passing a lot of levels in the hierarchy and vdvluc may be distorted and not match the primary. The more links in the communication chain, the greater the likelihood that the recipient will have a very different message than that sent by the sender.
Types of communications. In the practice of management of socio-economic system uses the following types of communications: between the organization and the environment; between the level of communication within the organization; between different departments (organizational units); between the Manager and the working group.
Communication between the organization and the environment. Organizations use various means for communication with the external environment. With existing and potential consumers of its products (services) they communicate through advertising and other promotion programs of products on the market. In the field of public relations the most attention is paid to the creation of a specific image, the "image" of the organization at the local, national or international level. Organizations have to submit to state regulation and maintain appropriate records. In their reports of the organization, give the information about your financial situation and production activities, and the like. Liaison with authorities, government, trade Union committees and associations. Are all examples of different ways of reacting to events and factors in the external environment.
So, discussion, meeting, meetings, telephone conversations, memos, reports used within the organization, as a rule, is a reaction to the opportunities and challenges created by external factors.
Interlevel communication in the organization. The information is transferred within the organization from level to level through vertical communication. It can be transmitted, for example, with higher levels on lower.
In this way subordinate levels of management reported on the current task, changing priorities, specific tasks, recommended procedures, etc.
Along with the exchange of information, which comes from the highest levels of management to the grassroots, the organization needs upward communication, that is, from the grassroots to the highest levels. The transmission of information from the grassroots to the highest levels can significantly affect performance.
Communication vishiy also performs the function of the communication peaks about what is being done at grassroots level. In this way the administration finds out about current or brewing problems and suggests possible options for improvement.
Communication between the various departments (units). Along with the exchange of information on the source organizations need horizontal communications. The organization consists of many departments, so the exchange of information between them is needed to coordinate tasks and actions. Since the organization is a system of interrelated elements, the user must ensure that the specialized elements worked together.
Although communication among members is characterized by the same regularities as the conversation between two or three people, but there are some framework conditions (parameters) that are crucial in human behavior in communication. For example, employees who can find common language among themselves "on personal grounds", and have complications at a firm because departments are "officially at war" with each other. In addition, there are model organizations that "facilitate communication" and which "hinder communication." For this reason was developed the concept of design management, which provide an opportunity to promote communication at the horizontal level of the hierarchy, because strict vertical hierarchy often prevents communication.
Communication between supervisors and subordinates. Perhaps the most obvious component of communication in the process of management of the organization is the relationship between managers and subordinates. Although they are an example of the exchange of information vertically, this type of communication is special because it is the basis of communicative activities Director.
The exchange of information between a supervisor and a subordinate is associated with the clarification of the objectives, priorities and expected results; ensuring involvement in the decision task of the Department;discussion of problems of efficiency; achievement of recognition and rewards; to improve and develop abilities of subordinates; collect information on actual or potential problem; a message to a subordinate about future changes, and learn about ideas, improvements and suggestions.
Communication between the Manager and the working group. In addition to the exchange of information between supervisors and subordinates takes place and the exchange between the Manager and the working group. Communications with working group as a whole allow the supervisor to improve the effectiveness of the group. Because the exchange involves all group members, everyone has the opportunity to think about new tasks and priority changes, their possible implications for this and other departments about the problems and achievements, proposals of rationalization of nature.
In addition, sometimes the working group is going without a leader to discuss problems, upgrades or changes that are predicted.
For an in-depth understanding of communicative processes, the efficiency (inefficiency) of the communications consider the concept of transactions in communications.
A transaction is verbal or wordless exchange between two people, which consists of irritation (e.g. a question) and response (e.g., response) between certain States "I".
The field of communications is virtually limitless in terms of the problems of human relationships, and in the aspect of scientific problems. Therefore, one of the main models of the analysis of transactions in the communication model States "I" — explaining the transaction model for the human person. The expectation was that each man has three different States "I" that affect her thoughts, feelings and actions:
I am the father (mother);
I'm an adult;
I'm a child.
Behavior can be defined by any of these States "I". If its behaviour is governed by "I am the father (mother) ", then behave relative to the other, as parents with a child. When "I" adult" reaction reasonable and thoughtful. If the behavior is celebrated as "I am a child", then behave relative to the other, like a child with adults.
"I am the father (mother)" contains all the hallmarks of uncritically internalized norms, prohibitions, principles, and ideals and related events from early childhood. Therefore, the behavior models "I am parent", you can compare with playing old records on which is recorded a norm. Here are ill-conceived, sometimes just silly estimates and judgments. Critical "I am the father (mother)" it is a state "I", which implies that we should do or what should not. Standard forms of expressions:
I'll take care of this.
What do you think you actually think?
You should always think about that...
You should never forget that...
As I already mentioned several times...
Critical "I am the father (mother)" focused on the past. In this case, more willing to do what should be than what is. The conversation is conducted on the principle: "it can Not be because should not be." We cannot allow something did not work, so that people made mistakes, came too late, was lying, etc.
Therefore, the critical "I'm a father (mother)" does problem-solving. For him to find the culprit much more important and enjoyable than to analyze and solve the problem.
"I — adult". Status "I — adult" is not dependent on the age of the person. It is formed approximately five years. As a rule, its development continues until the end of life, but "I am a child" and "I am the father (mother)" are formed earlier and in many cases far stronger impact on behavior.
Status "I — adult" is aimed at the modern reality (here and now) and on objective information, highly adaptable and intelligent (smart). "I — adult" is similar to a computer, checks the accumulated data and taking informed decisions. Typical "I — adult" is that it, before becoming to a certain position, ask the question:
Where did you get these numbers?
How did those costs?
When was the last time we tested this device?
What can we do now?
Why is there delay calculations?
"I —adult" plays a major role not only in solving problems that arise in our relations with others, but also in the collision of our own "I".
Compared with the critical "I — parent" "I'm an adult" re-checks the well-established rules from the point of view of their. compliance with the current requirements or processes that are taking place.
"I am a child" covers all the pulses that come from nature. This state contains features of the early experience, about the events and associated feelings, his reaction to it and looks at himself and at others., "I am a child" manifests itself in behavior that sees a child and who, although sometimes specified, but found in adults. Children can, of course, to adapt and to react intuitively. In line with this, there are three forms of "I — child":
natural "I am a child";
protasowicki "I am a child";
"The little Professor".
The natural "I am a child" released all the feelings, passions, or impulses that occur unchecked and uncensored. If it wants something, it is not long thinking, says, or does. Natural "I — child" characterized by vitality and love of life and labor. This is the most powerful state of "I" because it is primary; even with education and other measures, though very effective, it can be quite to suppress, it would still be stronger.
Protasowicki "I — child" is characterized by a condition in which a person tries to be inconspicuous and do what is expected of it. Protasowicki "I — child" is a state of "I" in us, who suffers, suffers, complains, and remains passive, which does nothing, but only expects, believes that "everything will be okay' or 'it'll work itself out". This wait can last a lifetime and nothing else in fact does not mean, as the expectation of death.
"The little Professor" means a state "I", which is better described by words cunning, or cool. "The little Professor" has been characterised by being easy to grasp by intuition. Contrast to "I — adult" is that "Little Professor" understands intuitively that "I — adult" understand after analysis.
Typically, the "Little Professor" is most often seen in young children who, wanting or not wanting something, become masters world-class in ingenuity and cunning.
Transactions can be simple, such as between two States "I" or comprehensive, if there is an exchange between three or four States "I". Thus, the conversation consists of a series of related transactions. If someone enters into the transaction, or responds to irritation, it has a number of possibilities concerning the state of "I" as their response, and about the state "I" of another with whom he wants to get in contact. Ideally, each independent in choosing the state "I" with which it operates.
All transactions can be summarized in three basic forms:
parallel; intersecting; hidden.
Parallel transactions occur when the recipient (receiver) of the transaction basically reacts like "I", accessed by the sender. Thus, the sender there is a state "I", which he addressed to the recipient at the beginning of communication.
All parallel transactions correspond to positive or negative expectations. The conversation can be envisaged and there is nothing unexpected. Obviously, the communication could go on and on, but this is unlikely.
Transactions that overlap is such that when the irritation (signal) occurs unexpected reaction. Occurs another as "I" and not the one addressed, and lines are crossed transactions are characterized by surprise, often very strong. Provided the conversation is broken, which can be risky. In addition, transactions that cross, are a means to give interviews, dramatic turn. If, for example, a business question ("I — adult" to "I — adult") to react to a reproach (the critical "I" is the father (mother)" protasowicki ("I am child"), in an interview tensions. However, if someone responds to criticism (critical, "I am the father (mother)" to pratasavickaja ("I am child") with the position "I — adult" to "I — adult" the other, then it may be a step to giving interviews — the nature of the business.
Hidden transaction. Transactions of this kind most difficult to understand, because saying one thing and thinking another. In this appeal is visible on one business "I am an adult", but at the same time send a veiled message to the other state "I". The hidden transaction is often a valve for broken ideas about values and feelings, which we do not wish to speak frankly.
Ironic comments, veiled threats, vague performances and threshold status are examples of hidden transactions.
In a conversation with an increase of hidden transactions increases the risk of misunderstandings, because you cannot be sure that the recipient will even notice or understand the hidden "message". In connection with this hidden transaction can be risky, as the recipient can openly ask: "How should we understand this word?". However, a clear answer to this question is what the sender of the message wanted to avoid.
Understanding the nature of communication, nature of communication processes, trends in transaction communications need Manager for mutual understanding in the team, for accurate performance of subordinates their tasks.