Leadership, power, leadership
Most people don't see the difference between the concepts of leadership, power and leadership, believing that being in a managerial position, a person automatically has power over subordinates is the leader of the team. Formally, this is true. In practice, however, the ratio of these three components of managerial influence are extremely varied because it is influenced by many factors, which include type of organization, its scale, direction, place in the hierarchy of governance, the personal qualities of the Manager. It is therefore necessary to examine the nature of these components of managerial influence and the ways of their synthesis in the activities of the modern Manager.
The user is the right person to give the official orders to subordinates and demand their execution. This right derives from the authority of the head, which determine its competence within the formal organization. Range management depends on the status of the head, that is, he is a man Manager, or person in charge of the collective management body. Head-demonically manages on the basis of dineychannel decision-making and control over the labor process, carrying full responsibility for the activities of the organization. When peer control is observed the division of governance responsibilities between a joint management body (Council, Board and the like) and the person who chairs the body. This separation is carried out by the delimitation of the competence of the collegial body and head. Generally, a collegial body decides the most important issues of the organization and delegates to the head of function by collective decisions and operational stewardship.
To perform the functions of the head, he must have the power, that is, the ability to influence the behavior of others. The governing influence and power depend on the person that sent this impact and situation in which it is located and the qualities of the head. The dependence of power from the individual that was targeted for control, is that every person because of their psychological characteristics responds differently to the impact of the head, and means, respectively, and behaves. There are people for whom the authority of the Director extends to all their actions both at work and outside it, others recognize this power only up to certain limits, while others, formally submit to the authority of the head are actually doing at your own discretion.
The real power depends on the situation, which is the head. For example, the power of the young leader, as a rule, are not equivalent authorities experienced leader who performs managerial functions in the organization for a long time.
Therefore, there is no absolute power, because one cannot equally affect all people in all situations.
The power of the leader over subordinates also depends on his personal qualities and especially professional competence and the ability to find effective levers of influence on people.
In the end, in terms of organization of power is also determined by the hierarchy of relationships, that is, the scene of a head on the stairs of the office. At first glance, the higher is a Manager in the management hierarchy, the more power and influence it can exercise. It's right in the attitude of the team as a whole. As for the individual, the more power has a direct supervisor than the one who is at the highest level of management. This is due to the fact that the availability of power over subordinates need to monitor what is essential to the latter, creates a dependent on the head and forces him to act as desired by the supervisor.
There are six forms of power of the leader over subordinates: power based on coercion; power is based on rewards; expert power; reference power; legitimate power; charisma.
Power based on coercion, common in many organizations where managers do not recognize other forms of power over subordinates, though perhaps intuitively the limited means of coercion to influence subordinates. The essence of this power is the presence of the head of the means of punishment of a subordinate who can hurt you the satisfaction of certain essential needs of the latter or to cause any other trouble.
Power based on reward, in the center of the set of levers of influence on the slave puts a fee, that is able to meet its essential needs and to give pleasure.
Expert power is based on subordinate's confidence about the presence of the head of the special knowledge that allows him to satisfy the essential requirements of the subordinate.
The reference power is called the power of example. The gist of it is that the personal qualities of the leader is so attractive to the subordinate that the latter wants to buy them, executing orders and instructions of the supervisor.
Legitimate power is based on the belief of the subordinate in the right of the Manager to give instructions that the slave must perform. Therefore, this power is called traditional because it follows from posodobi hierarchical structure of organization management.
Every leader has legitimate authority in connection with powers to manage the people provided by the management hierarchy.
Charisma — a power that is built not on logic or tradition, but on personal qualities (abilities) leader.
New management thinking requires that management have made no formal bosses, and leaders who are in the team's informal authority.
The study of the nature of leadership in social splinetech shows that leaders generally have a range of clearly identified qualities. First, the way of life of a leader involves the close combination of career and personal life.
Secondly, a leader never stops in its development. Ability, ambition, talent, knowledge, stimulate leader to further develop and improve them.
Thirdly, the leader finds his true calling in the application of inherited abilities and acquired skills, intelligence, knowledge, talent as a way of self-realization in the leadership of other people.
The differences between the status of the leader and formal leader of the unit arise from the specifics of the role and functions performed by the first and second. The Director provides management-based dineychannel decision-making and control over work of subordinates. The leader of the right to decision-making usurps for himself, but rather gives it to each employee. In the result, changes the status of subordinates. If the head is a certain group of people, which he directs, speaking often crestanello external force, then the leader of the collective unit becomes a team in which its members, acting as members of the orchestra, not leave the service, and is full of creative impulse. The leader is a member of this team, however, occupying a special place in it. It generates ideas, crystallizes own ideas, honing them in contact with the staff perceives the ideas of the team members as your own and helps in their implementation. Its main task is not to make decisions, and to help other team members find issues that need to be addressed in the formation of goals and objectives collectively. Accordingly, the function of control over the work of subordinates is replaced by the function of coordination. The leader focuses on finding ways to reconcile different, often opposing interests of employees and other resources needed to solve problems.
Hence, the role of knowledge, the intellectual capacity of a leader because only that allows it to carry its functions and to identify and raise issues to other team members.
The phenomenon of leadership based on the authority of the head. There are formal, personal, and full authority of the head.
The formal authority of the head of his rights as an official to dispose of subordinates, give them jobs, to demand their execution, to supervise and stimulate their work.
The personal authority of the head is determined by his personal qualities as a person such as humanity, tolerance, ethics, etc.
Full authority of a leader or the leader's authority, manifested in the combination of formal and personal authority of a person holding a managerial position.
High personal and overall results, the organization is able to achieve now only one Manager who is a leader among subordinates.