The word "style" understand that a feature that often does not have a specific quantitative measure and is perceived intuitively as something that distinguishes one object from another. So, the word "style" to understand the direction of the development of art, architecture, culture, polite manners etc.
In the literature the concept of "leadership style" is used in such values: philosophy of management, the climate group (team); model or system of governance; a flexible behavior of the Manager in relation to staff; technician or technology management. Happen the concept of "style Manager" and "management style", which basically equate.
If you keep all of the existing definitions of management style (leadership) to a common denominator, it is possible to give a definition of management style. Leadership style is flexible, the behavior of the Manager in relation to employees, which varies in time depending on the situation and is manifested in the way the management works sub-head of the administrative apparatus. In other words, the style of management is a broader concept that characterizes not only the working style of the leader but also the working style of the entire apparatus management.
The style of the head is a set of typical and relatively stable methods of influence of the head on subordinates to effectively use management functions and thus the tasks of the economic system.
Leadership style is evident, therefore, what methods the leader encourages staff initiative and creative execution of his duties as monitoring the results of activities of subordinates. Thus, leadership style may be characteristic of the quality of the activities Director and the governing body, their ability to provide effective managerial activities, and create and play in the team a special atmosphere, dictates certain norms of behavior and relationships. So there are two components: the ways in which the influence on subordinates, and relationships with them and also with colleagues and superiors.
As a rule, the style is characterized by resistance, which manifests itself in the regular repetition of certain techniques of leadership. However, this stability is relative, since for the style are also characteristic a dynamism that many professionals valued high enough.
Leadership style is in close relation and interaction with management.
Management methods is commonly interpreted as a set of techniques (methods) focused on the impact of the head on workers and labor groups to ensure a coordinated action. It is important to emphasize that the method is objective, which exists outside and independently of the head. In contrast, leadership style, although basically too objective, but is mediated by the individual characteristics of the leader.
The concept of style it is advisable to use primarily in the identity Manager. And individual style is a special form of combination of production functions of the head, with its function of regulation of personal relations between the members of his subordinate staff. To the subjective qualities of leadership that determine the style of his leadership include intelligence, General culture, and the level of professional skill, personality and temperament, moral qualities, etc.
Objectively, the style of the head is dictated, first of all, a conscious purpose, which determines the way and character of his actions and to which he must subordinate his will.
On this basis, the objective components of style are: patterns of management; specificity (functional purpose) of a sector specific activities; requirements for the leaders of society in relation to their competence, efficiency, responsibility, personal qualities, morals, temperament, nature of; socially-psychological traits of perpetrators (age, sex, qualification, profession, interests and needs, etc); specifics of the system-its goals and objectives, management structures and control technology, the functional content of activities of the head); production environment (a technological level of production, forms of work organization, availability of production resources); features-led team (structure and level of preparedness, the nature of formal and informal relationships, traditions and values); the level of the management hierarchy; methods and techniques of control used by their superiors. These components of style determine the particular combination in the head of the household system of production functions and the regulation of interpersonal relations, the nature of the traditions and techniques of communication, existing in it and thus work style.
The style, which adheres to the head, constantly is in sight of his subordinates. In a certain way he perceived and understood them. Many imitate his head, trying to copy it. Therefore, the style of work of the subordinate certificates their heads as convincingly as the behavior of the children — their parents. Over time, the style of leadership that has emerged can create the effective mechanism of rejection of a foreign body that is not fit for one reason or another characteristics in the value system of the team.
One-dimensional description of the leadership style. Using this description we can characterize the style of leadership depending on the degree of delegation of authority.
3 — solves the head, but it allows you to ask questions about
its solutions and answering them, trying to reach mutual understanding;
4 — the Manager informs the subordinates about upcoming decisions; subordinates have the opportunity to Express their opinion before the leader makes a final decision;
5 — the group develops proposals, and the Manager selects the most successful
in his opinion the decision;
6 — the group decides after the head will explain the problem and
will determine the limits to free actions when dealing with it;
7 — the group decides, the head acts as a coordinator inside her and outside her.
Two-dimensional description of the leadership style. Prof. Robert Blake and his employee Jane S. Mouton proposed to describe the leadership style of the so-called "grid management" (Fig. 14). They came to the conclusion that any result is achieved in a force field between production and man. The first "power line" will lead to maximum production, which is manifested in various forms of goods and services. Constant targets here are the highest income, saving production costs, etc. If the attempt to increase productivity at any cost, not paying attention to the employees, it will lead to meager results.
The second "power line" directed at the person. It aims to ensure that working conditions were most likely to meet his needs and desires. Good health and job satisfaction — this is the second goal.
Between these two "power lines" there is a certain contradiction. This creates a certain "field", which can be divided into nine grades on each power line. This gives the opportunity to specify the five characteristic types of managerial behavior, denoting each of these figures. For example, 9.1 means a style that is completely focused on production and which pays at least. attention to specific people. It is a "hard" course administrator, whose most important production results, and the person only by.
It is clear that in such circumstances, the work not everyone is fun, so most employees are trying to evade constant pressure. For "tough administrator" characteristic is a comprehensive control. Most of the time absorb the functions of supervision. Reaction of people to such guidance is moving away from finding solutions to existing problems, willingness to share responsibility. This position, in turn, strengthens the "tough administrator" in his contemptuous attitude towards employees. He constantly gets into a stressful situation. As a result of this "management pressure" is increasingly growing and turnover is increasing.
A leader who focuses on style 1.9 is opposite to the head of the style 9.1. This style puts in first place human relations, performance is second. The slogan "you have to be a man" leads to a weakening of mutual responsibility, attempts to avoid solving problems. It is possible that many employees will glorify the atmosphere created by such a leader in the team until then while to them will not be a visual admitted bias. The conflicts that forcibly suppresses the head style 9.1, be "shelved" at the head 1.9. They violate them established harmony between all. Staff, without incentives, be malonemkovski and lose interest in the work.
Contact the center "grid". Leaders that fit this position are committed to a sustainable average level, satisfy them and average the result, their motto is "not enough stars in the sky", but practical activities are aimed at compromise, the "Golden mean".
The coordinates of the "lattice" allow to evaluate the results of such control: 50% is possible with a half of interest in work. If conflicts arise, the solutions possibly are taken in a democratic way.
In the lower left corner of the "grid" to place those who hasn't run for anything — not to the production's success, nor to the establishment of humane conditions of production. Can such people to take leadership positions? Unlikely. However, this style causes a corresponding attitude on the part of ordinary employees to work not to get fired and not have to worry about anything. The social requirements and techniques that enable you to fully use the services of the social sphere, well known to those persons who were coded symbol 1.1 in fairness, we note that such attitude is often a reaction to the style specified by the coordinates 9.1.
In the upper right corner of the "grid" encoded style, which suggests higher results at the maximum consideration of the needs of people. The question arises, can it be achieved? Supporters of the "lattice management" are convinced that it is not only possible, but necessary. The key to this — in real human needs, which does not consist in idleness, and motivations. A practical man, the warehouse realizes itself in the results of their work. This is confirmed by the results of numerous psychological studies. Of course, not all jobs give you the possibility to monitor the result of their own labor, it can completely neocomites in the division of labor. Distinguish types of work, the results of which are not public accepted. In these cases, a direct result of human activity is the side-indicator — wages.
If professional activity in General makes it impossible to evaluate the significance of their labor, it often leads to behavior that is encoded on "the grid" as 1.1 and to the transfer of areas of interest in personal life (Hobbies, sports, etc.).
Leadership style 9.9 is the ability to build on the work that staff saw it as an opportunity of self-realization and confirmation of self-worth. As success is realized purpose, it is important to define goals together with employees.
If this will create the conditions that will allow them to use their abilities, the ideal position 9.9 does not seem so unattainable. These conditions include a constructive mechanism to accommodate different views on how to achieve objectives and updating organizational structures.
The style is a long, continuous and complex process. In the work style of individual managers can often detect undesirable traits, such as the desire to involve in the discussion of any issues without having an excessive amount of people. This leads to inefficient spending of working time, cause dissatisfaction from subordinates, delaying the solution of problems. In contrast, some managers prefer the personal issues and even those that fall within the competence of subordinates. In the work style of some leaders there is a tendency fears reasonable risk, attempts to shy away from new challenges. Many features of individual style of work associated with the psychological characteristics of the head that should be considered when selecting leading cadres.
The ever-growing complexity of conditions of the control objects and tasks that arise in front of them, the complexity of the system of internal and external relations determine, on the one hand, the need of finding new, previously unknown solutions and methods of their implementation, and with another — to open more opportunities for the use of standard solutions and methods that proved itself when you perform a typical re-works and operations. Management theory, like any other science, does not give prescription advice. its provisions require creative thinking, accounting, effective exposure bagatoh factors, dynamic management processes.
In the process of governance, the situation is changing so fast that the methods and techniques that have recently in the same it would seem the situation provided the effect, after a while be ineffective and even unsuitable. All this necessitates a creative approach to solving problems of control, which is based on the wide use of achievements of science and a deep systematic study of practice. A successful solution of management problems requires not only a creative and scientific approach, but also specific skills and experience.
Therefore, the increase in capacity of chief, readiness to the solution of increasingly complex problems depends on the experience of its practical activities. Thinking practice helps the Manager to find the most effective use of theoretical knowledge, equips him with the ability to rationally organize the work of their subordinates, most fully mobilize their creative initiative.
The science of management developed specific recommendations for successful management of the workforce. Of course, these recommendations are based on generalized experience, require in each case a special analysis of the degree of suitability of a leadership style in a particular organization.
In addition, the style And methods of leadership are always related to a specific business process. So, practice shows that for normal economic activities need special methods of leadership that are appropriate to the situation there. It should also be borne in mind that to a certain extent, any guide is always a specific personality, which makes individual point in the style guide. However, this does not exclude the existence of General principles of successful leadership, which, of course, must be taken into account the specific circumstances.
Consider the basic components of effective management of the workforce.
The first condition of effective leadership is collegiality. With collegial leadership reveals the most multifaceted and evolving initiative of employees, provides a calm labor environment, conscious discipline. Relationships between members of staff, including the Manager, have business character, and if conflicts arise, the Manager solves them without disturbing good relationship with them.
In some systems, management are of the opinion that the Manager should have a strong personality, the main quality of which is freedom, while subordinates are only required diligence in performing tasks. However, in modern conditions is a strong-willed approach of increasing importance and application takes the intellectual approach to solving problems, which is based on trust and takes into account their goals, experience, creative potential.
To realize the underlying potential of the team, the Manager should Express the economic and social aspects of jobs or tasks and to achieve their implementation of the initiative, be bold and ready to take on the responsibility for making such decisions in the successful result of which there is no certainty.
Practice shows that ordinary workers generally do not want to be mere executors of the orders of the head. They do not care about included in the received job made their previous bid or their opinion ignored. We should not forget that the best are usually those orders, the development of which involved performers. By itself, this part is a kind of psychological preparation, which brings workers a sense of responsibility for assigned work and encourages them to implement the decision at their own initiative, without pressure from the outside, creatively and efficiently.
Thus, an important factor for the improvement of leadership style is the most complete use of the collective experience and knowledge, taking into account the views of both workers and the wider circle of shareholders.
The following component of effective leadership style is the ability to implement the planned program. The activity of the leader is always in the sphere of attention of the public, especially when he performs at gatherings, meetings or any other form of publicly expresses his attitude to certain political, economic, or production issues. It is important not only correctly to formulate a position, but clearly and convincingly convey them to the audience.
An important part of effective leadership style is the unity of word and deed in the activities of the Manager. Practice shows that the highest success in the work to reach those leaders who are always guided by this principle. Responsible attitude to their own business plans, loyalty to the commitments, an indispensable follow-up work — the characteristics of an effective work style.
It happens, however, that the efficiency, discipline are replaced with the verbiage. All organizational work is reduced to the compilation of various actions and plans, without a real care about performing them. Some heads all the time spend taking care of the production, trying to catch here and there. They did not have enough time to focus on the prospects, hence working late, on weekends etc.
Part of effective leadership style is the competence of the head in a committed, entrepreneurial activity, business flair, ability to take calculated economic risks.
Along with the business leadership of great importance for the formation of his style of leadership have a moral quality. The absolute requirement for personnel management is their honesty and truthfulness to the team and its individual members. Attempts to deceive members of the team or business contractors, tangling reporting, delayed reporting make the elements of chaos in control, impeding the normal course of business processes, causing economic damage to the organization or enterprise and non-pecuniary damages to the members of the team. Steadily getting rid of such phenomena is an important condition of the modern style of economic management. The intransigence of the disadvantages, honest, critical and committed attitude characteristic of the modern Manager.
The quality of leadership depends on creative approach to business. The head needs to generate ideas, to show independence, safely conduct search, go nepravdami the risk for increase of efficiency of managing.
An essential feature of the leader is his constant desire to improve all aspects of my work. Every Manager should remember that systematic work on themselves, learning new methods of organization and management, learning and implementation of best practices, achievements of science and technology — its most important duty. Modern style guides provided by the efficiency, knowledge, experience, managerial skills ability to work with people, win their confidence, to lead their work.
The management of the organization or enterprise requires specific in each case, economic analysis and individual approach. In modern conditions of managing it is necessary to care not only about the development of management practices, but also about how to successfully apply them using deep scientific analysis of the organizational and economic activities of enterprises, differentiated approach to each workforce.
In the literature there are recommendations that give the opportunity to determine how activities of an enterprise, institution, organization meets the requirements of leadership style.
For this you need to answer the following questions: contributes to the imposed style of work efficiency and economy; whether it is creative, looking to the future, helps to notice and the right to raise new issues; how matches work style to attract masses to be creative, further development and deepening democracy, it helps to eliminate weaknesses, to accelerate moving forward.
Almost contemporary leadership style needs to meet certain requirements, the main of which are the following:
the reasonable distribution of powers and responsibilities between separate units and administrative personnel, including Vice-head;
alert team members about the need and criteria for decision-making on a particular issue and also fully involving them in the preparation and implementation of decisions;
the assignment of specific tasks to workers based on their abilities, skills and knowledge; attentive to suggestions, requests of subordinates; team building, reinforcement existing between its members, the business relationship of positive informal relationships;
creating a team intolerant attitude toward violators of discipline and attempts to hide the flaws in the work, the education of the people of honesty and integrity;
the manifestation of the will and perseverance to timely and quality completion of tasks.
Thus, leadership style is a complex category and it has quite strict requirements. The possibility of implementation of the latter largely depends on the psychological structure of the collective, norms of behavior and nature of communication between its members. However, objective changes in the conditions of functioning socially-economic systems and in the activities of the control apparatus establishes the need for continuous improvement of work style of managers, their relations with the collectives and individual workers.