The organization of the workplace in the administration
In recent years, the organization and equipment of working places of employees of the management, the creation of appropriate conditions for their work become increasingly important. Every year increases the volume processed in the process control information, are increasingly used means of mechanization and automation of work — from simple office equipment to complex computers, there are new profession, deepening the division, cooperation and specialization of labor.
All of this requires a certain organization of workplaces, their planning, equipment, create optimal conditions for work.
Requirements for the organization of workplaces can be grouped as follows: information, economic, Energon, hygienic, aesthetic, technical, organizational.
Information requirements cover a range of activities aimed at information support of the workplace. These include: definition of the scope and structure of information that comes into the workplace, it is processed, generated and transmitted to other workplaces; designing information flows, which include workplace, etc.
Information that focuses on a particular workplace, must comply with the General principles of scientific organization and management information to be sufficient for the performance of official duties by the employee.
Economic requirements provide for such organization of the workplace in management personnel at which expenses on the maintenance of the workplace is minimal, but sufficient for its operation. It is also advisable to check working place, the criterion of optimality, the effect of the activities of the employee in the workplace must exceed the costs of the workplace and the employee.
Ergonomic requirements are studied and formulated a new branch of science that appeared recently in connection with the new requirements of production and management — ergonomics.
Ergonomics were on the verge of technical Sciences, psychology, physiology, hygiene. This discipline also uses data from the anatomy, anthropometry, Biophysics, toxicology. Ergonomics—the branch of science that studies the functionality of human labor processes in order to create the optimal working conditions.
Making it a productive and reliable, however, provide the person the necessary facilities and retain its strength, health and performance. So, all that surrounds the working person, creating a working environment — furniture, facilities, equipment, machines, tools and other equipment should meet the requirements of ergonomics and to be as attuned to man, to his physical, physiological, aesthetic nature.
The hygienic requirements is the requirements for lighting of workplaces, ventilation, temperature, humidity, noise and other environmental factors that affect health and human performance. Since these requirements apply generally to the production environment of the employees of the management, not only to the individual workplace, they are discussed separately.
The aesthetic requirements. The productivity of human labor largely depends on the layout elements of the environment in which it operates. Consequently, such elements of the aesthetic design of the production environment, as the appearance of the premises and tools, their colour, the presence of colors in the interior, etc. you also need to consider the organization of the workplace.
Technical requirements. For any work, including work of the employee, there must first be some room. This is the area where you install the necessary furniture and equipment occupied by the employee, as well as the area of the passages to the table, equipment, and other workplace etc.
In addition, you should consider such a feature of employees: managers, as well as a significant part of the professional and technical staff needs to communicate in the process of working with other staff is a meeting of the leadership, the individuals have to communicate during business trips, colleagues working on the same problem, and the like. They also need to allocate workplace specific area, where could be located the meeting tables, chairs.
Given these conditions, the existing sanitary norms (SN) set the following dimensions of working space for different categories of employees, m2:
The head of the company 24-54
Deputy head, head of the large structural units 12-35
Head of Department, his Deputy, chief specialist Specialist 8-24 4-8 5-7 Senior account Executive Head of the typing pool typist, Junior clerk of 3.25.
However, these standards can only be a guide when you organize and plan jobs, because they do not take into account the diversity of working conditions of employees of different professions. So much easier to use to determine the total area of the workplace in each case, total calculation method, which take into account the area of the three constituent parts of the workplace:
Psig = PR + PU + PPR
where PR is the area necessary for operation and movement of the employee; PU — the area occupied by the equipment; PPE — the area of the passages.
With this method of counting can also be considered a necessary area for visitors, and in some cases for equipment that is used collectively. When using the cumulative method, the calculation is carried out according to the standards on the individual elements of the workplace.
The footprint of the furniture and equipment, calculate simple: each equipment has certain dimensions. However, these dimensions establish a not arbitrary, they are subject to the requirements of ergonomics and especially anthropometry. Man sitting at Desk, can cover only a limited working space, limited by the distance of her outstretched arms. This space is called a maximum working reach of and is 65-70 cm and 150-160 cm in width. Therefore, standard desks for the majority of employees have a size 750X 1500 mm. The tables are larger (up to 1000 X 2000 mm) are designed for meeting with one to three visitors.
The working area can be increased by setting the chairs where the employee is rotating in the right direction.
The height of furniture and equipment must also meet the requirements of anthropometry: the height of the desks is 750 mm, and tables for printing machines is 650 mm.
In accordance with these requirements determine the space required for easy placement of the working people — the distance from the Desk or other equipment to the wall or nearby the workplace should be 85 cm.
For the passage of one person must be 60 cm, for two — 120 to see If the pass is located along the furniture with drawers — you must add another 55 cm
Workplace administration must also conform to the organizational requirements, that is necessary to determine the competence of the employee at a certain workplace, rights, duties, subordination, vertical and horizontal communication with other working places, forms and methods of stimulation of effective labor. These issues are addressed by the development of provisions on structural subdivisions of the management apparatus and job descriptions of employees.
The provisions of subdivisions must contain clearly defined tasks, functions and rights of each link taking into account the specific conditions of the organization of their activities, as well as the entire enterprise or organization as a whole. In developing regulations tailored to the specific conditions of implementation of economic and financial activities, analyze the internal economic relations, the existing relations and organizational forms; this is not to limit the reflection of the existing, you need to try to consolidate the progressive trends in the improvement of the management system.
The whole complex of issues in the regulations is grouped into relevant sections.
The common part. Here explains the place and importance of the unit in the control system of the enterprise (organization). Specifies who reports directly to the unit, as well as its features, main tasks, showing that what created a particular unit, the direction and goals of its activities.
Functions of the unit. This section formulates the functions needed to perform the tasks assigned to the unit.
The right unit. Set the range of rights necessary and sufficient for the execution unit assigned to it functions, and also provides for the exercise of the rights.
The management of the unit. This section defines the structure of the unit, which, based on the structure of the company, calculated depending on the volume of work and number of employees. Indicated in accordance with the staffing position leading a sector group within the unit, the relationship of the units with the divisions and services of the enterprise. Establishes procedures for the receipt and delivery of relevant documentation and information.
Responsibility. In this section, taking into account all peculiarities of work of each division of the disciplinary and material responsibility of managers and unit employees in the timely and effective execution of its functions, rational organization of work and for the correctness of the formulation and implementation of measures aimed at addressing issues related to the competence of these individuals.
Financial incentives. This section establishes a list of indicators for structural units to bonus and depremirovaniya.
Organisational requirements in relation to the individual workplace are derived from the General organizational principles of functioning of structural divisions of the Executive office. Besides, the individual workplace is implemented in compliance with these requirements:
1) to a workplace must be defined by the tasks (functions) for which you created a workplace and the duties that stem from the essence of the tasks of the workplace;
2) to perform the tasks and responsibilities should be determined rights and powers of the employee in a specific workplace, as well as the necessary technical support for its work;
3) it is necessary to clearly establish the liability of the employee which follows from the fact his workplace.
All these requirements are implemented in the job description.