The locations of the jobs offices and working conditions of employees
Some workplaces employees are grouped in accordance with the procedure of division of labor, belonging to the structural unit made by a particular employee of a particular job or function. Such groups can be working or in certain work rooms — offices, or in one large room, which occupies the whole floor.
The layout of such premises is called the "hall", "leather interior", "landscape" or "big office".
A particular type of premises has its advantages and disadvantages. Traditional Cabinet planning provides the opportunity to separate from the bulk of the running plot with the most noise. Moreover, some types of equipment during its operation require special nesomnenno. In addition, the work performed by employees in their traditional forms, need a day, multiple transitions from one operation to another, telephone conversations and meetings. The conditions for this are provided by the presence of separate rooms.
However, traditional office space has disadvantages: high maintenance it, and, most importantly, to place workers and equipment in offices is often difficult in the classrooms are often crowded, any permutation is a problem.
The advantages of large firms are primarily in the flexibility to change workflow, but also in the cheapness of the buildings themselves, mainly due to the absence of internal bearing walls. Individual seats or areas are separated from each other mobile glazed partitions, as well as various decorative elements, such as holders for flowers.
The conditions in which people work are of great importance for workers ' health, affect his or her physical and mental state, largely determine the performance.
One of the major and especially important for employees working conditions is a sufficient and proper illumination. Tensions vision is one of the most important factors of fatigue in the work of the employees.
Natural light is characterized by the ratio Er, which is the ratio of the illuminance indoors at a certain point in EB to light the outer horizontal plane, uniformly illuminated by scattered solar light E3:
Em = EV / Ez.
If the coefficient of natural lighting in the premises or any part thereof is less than 0.50, you need to use artificial lighting. This requirement applies to the overall lighting, which should be sufficient in the premises. General illumination, its normal intensity and quality of lighting now acquire a special meaning: if in the traditional work of employees with documents at his Desk lighting table lamps was still valid as a complement to the General, then at work on keyboards machines, local lighting is desirable because of the lighting bunnies.
Basic requirements common to artificial lighting include:
1) adequate illumination, which facilitates visual perception and reduces fatigue;
2) no light bunnies;
3) the color of light that does not distort the natural colors of objects.
Sufficient quality of artificial lighting is especially important when employees use different devices and devices of mechanization and automation of their work.
Of great importance in the design of workplaces and tools have color. When painting premises need to apply only light, razbelennye shades, characterized by high reflectance and reduced light levels.
On the performance of employees is negatively affected by noise, which makes it impossible to concentrate, causes fatigue, reduces productivity.
Normal noise level in the office is such that does not exceed 50-55 dB. In fact, however, phone conversations, and especially over the noise of the cars is much higher.
The fight against external and internal noise is important. So, a special coating of walls and ceiling sound-absorbing material reduces the noise level by 5-6 dB. However, the most significant reserves in reducing the noise contained in the relevant changes to their designs, in a wide application of electronics.
Temperature and humidity also have an impact on the work of servants. Normal temperature is considered to be in the premises 18 °C at a ventilation rate of 1.5 for 1 hour. The best conditions allow the application of air conditioning.
Working conditions of management personnel are also characterized by a mode of his work. The work is installed on the enterprise (the organization) work schedule that defines the duration of the working day and working week, start and end of work, break.
The basic requirements for operation are fixed in the internal regulations. they develop every enterprise or organization under current labour legislation. This document summarizes the General responsibilities of workers and administration, rules of behavior at work, and the limits and lines of responsibility for violating these rules. The aim of internal regulations is to provide labor discipline, proper organization of work and safe conditions for its full and rational use of working hours, etc.
The model internal regulations contain the following sections: order of employment of workers; working hours and its use; incentive measures and modalities in cases of violation of labor discipline.
On the basis of internal regulations and modes of work and leisure are being developed daily routines for separate departments, managers and executives. The daily routine provides the following benefits: organizes work of the management in General; reduced loss of working time to waiting in separate services; the preconditions for a more precise planning of their work of some administrative employees; improving the interaction of individuals and groups of workers.
Thus, the creation of the necessary conditions of labor and regulation is an essential prerequisite for effective staff management.