Information support of managerial work
The management of any socio-economic system related to the informational processes. Highly effective management activities can be carried out only on the basis of perfect information material (and itself this activity concludes with the results of new information).
Information is a bundling-based Process management, as it provides information necessary for situation assessment and decision management solutions. Any management involves the exposure of the object is carried out by results of management teams, developed on the basis of analysis of available information characteristics of the situation.
Lack of information deprives the head of the possibility of a conscious and reasoned action, because it serves as a source material for theoretical and practical activities of man, discovering the mechanism of transformation of possibility into reality.
It is no accident that the concept of Cybernetics is one of the main. Moreover, from the standpoint of Cybernetics, management is the process of perceiving, transforming, and transmitting information, and she is considered Cybernetics as the science of the flow of information processes. Thus, the management process is to work with information that is used to make decisions necessary to maintain the systems of order and delivery.
Having in each a time information about the state of the system and its subsystems, their interaction and the environment, it is impossible for the rational functioning of the system, to preserve its integrity and high quality specifics. In addition, the absence of reliable information is a precondition of subjectivity, purely volitional, unreasonable decisions and actions, incompatible with the scientific management.
What is information? At first glance it may seem that the answer to this question is simple and obvious. The reality looks different. Suffice it to say that there is still no General accepted notion of information — so complex was its definition.
N. Wiener called information "the definition of the content received from the external world in the process of our adjustment to it and adapt to our emotions." Now in General terms, the information is documented or publicly announced data on events and phenomena occurring in society, the state and the surrounding natural environment. The information reflects the state and changes the state of a particular system. A variety of States of the system, which is reflected, generates a variety of information. In this sense, the movement information to determine motion of the system.
Many experts below information not understand any information about the object, but only perceived, understood and evaluated as useful for solving various tasks. From this consideration of the information contained in the various summary tables and other documents or in computer memory are determined by information only from the moment when they are involved in the process control system and beginning to be used to achieve its objectives.
In other words, information is data that have a consumer, which applies them to the active influence on the system, its regulation and development. And by the time they are treated as data, which await implementation.
The concept of information is usually associated with a certain system in the sense that its receipt and circulation of the necessary object that is the source of the information and the subject interested in her. Regarding the information structure, it is not otherwise in accordance with the specific management tasks.
In nature, areas of origin, purpose and forms of anchoring (fixing) of the information used in management, divided into three great classes.
The first type includes technical and scientific information. Its source of origin are the results of research of scientists and specialists in different branches of activities. This information is contained in scientific and technical literature, patent, design and technological documentation.
To the second class belongs the actual management information that occurs directly in the management process. This is a planning, regulatory and other information required for the management of the enterprise or organization. Such information is contained in commercial contracts, bids and orders, and various administrative documents.
The third class contains accounting and statistical information. source — the results of activities of administrative units. It's created as a compilation of facts and events that occurred, occurs or may occur. This information is recorded in special documents (forms), has a periodic character. Accounting and statistical information is intended for use as a source for decision-making, since it formed the basis of the idea of the actual state of production and economic and socio-economic processes, the achieved rate of development of sectors of activity, profit growth, etc.
Among other classifications of information can be a meaningful organizational, functional.
In accordance with the meaningful signs information klassificeret on reflection objects (labor, material resources, means of production, Finance), sectors of activity (trade, catering) and on the types of relationships (economic, social, technical).
On the basis of organizational information is subdivided into systematic, that is regulated by the composition of indicators, locations, frequency, and timing of the transfer, the forms of representation and nesistematichno.
In accordance with the functional characteristics distinguish the planned information, coordination, accounting, control etc.
Level sign allows you to select the orientation of the information: the command comes from subject to object control, and notification, which does the opposite and horizontal, which provides information exchange between partners of the same rank.
Classification information is important as the analysis of the existing system of information exchange and development and organization in the system that is re-created. It can help to identify areas where there is an excess or insufficient information. For example, the management cycle must ensure a rational relationship between the planning, coordinating, monitoring and accounting information. If the control system is little attention given to the collection of accounting information, governments are under pressure to develop planning documents in the context of lack of information about the real state of Affairs in certain parts of the object of control, which negatively affects the validity and effectiveness of planning decisions.
Information provision is intended to meet all the needs of management processes that occur in any socio-economic system. For this purpose a multilevel control system each level set:
General item data characterizing qualitatively and quantitatively the management objects;
the frequency of the incoming data, which reflects the dynamics of socio-economic processes;
the efficiency of processing data for the purpose of generation of new information, control actions;
the timing of bringing the decisions taken to control objects.
The total range of the data used in management may be provided by the following groups: the number and qualification structure of workforce, which implement economic-financial processes in the system;
material resources necessary for the functioning of the sectors of activity;
the state of fixed assets, i.e. buildings, machinery and various equipment, ensuring the technological processes in the sectors of activity;
rules and regulations use of resources for the implementation of economic and production activity of objects of management;
the status of items of work in sectors of activity (for example, in trade — the volume of inventory, sales of goods for a certain period, etc.).
These data groups are expressed in the system of specific indicators. The indicator contains quantitative or qualitative characteristic of the control object, phenomenon or process that they happen. Indicator as an information unit consists of names and quantities. Name of the indicator reflects its meaning and establishes connection with the tasks of planning, accounting, control, analysis of the respective object. Name of the indicator, in turn, consists of a base and in the concrete part. The base figure reflects its basic meaning, and the specific part is a real condition or changes of the object, phenomenon or process control in space and time, and indicate units of them.
Base and a specific part of the index is used to search, select, and diverse groups of socio-economic phenomena or processes. The value of the index, as a rule, subjected to computational processing.
In order to fulfill its role in the management, it must meet certain requirements: accuracy and well-defined periodicity of receipt, timeliness (efficiency), completeness, usefulness, accessibility.
The accuracy requirement means that it must accurately reflect the operation of the system. The words that are used to characterize the indicators should have an unambiguous meaning and to avoid different interpretations. In the application of technical means of information processing, the expression language indicators should be perceived corresponding devices and computer.
The requirement of periodicity of receipt of information lies in the fact that it was received in a timely manner to the consumer — the relevant structural unit or a specific employee. Information should be before the situation changes, which it describes, otherwise it loses its value. However, by constantly circulating information shall be provided such time promoting it, which give consumers the time necessary for its processing, understanding and decision making. Form of motion information and time of its receipt by the control system must be coordinated in time with the cycle control and to provide, if necessary, the possibility of rapid intervention in the operation of the system. The information may be processed and move in this way: gradually, depending on income; at regular intervals when it is first accumulated, then processed and transmitted through the certain time intervals; irregular units or packages, depending on the accumulation of it.
With the requirement of the periodicity of receipt of information is closely related to the requirement of promptness (timeliness) of the data processing in the control system, which determines the efficiency of receipt of the command information to the control object. Practice shows that often information about the state of the control object is supplied to the controlling subsystem in a timely manner, but is retained in the channels of the latter, resulting in control action or delayed or not carried out.
Completeness, or sufficiency of information means that the amount of information should be minimal but sufficient to assess the situation and decision at a certain level of control.
The requirement of usefulness of the information means that in the flow of information messages should not be data, indicators, which are needed to solve problems or in General for a particular level or levels of management.
The availability of information is that information should be presented in a way that does not require additional processing and complicates the decision-making process.
The requirements subject to their ensure the normal operation of the control system of the organization or enterprise.
Management information undergoes a series of operations: transfer, transformation, processing, storage, evaluation, use, and in some cases destroyed.
Information transfer is moving it to some channel of communication from source to consumer. The basic principle of proper organization of information transfer involves passing on the shortest path with minimal cost of time and labor. Reverse movement shall be eliminated or limited to that largely depends on the placement of the structural elements of the management system, separate working places.
Transformation of information involves analytical and synthetic study of its content and the preparation of new forms of (secondary) information. Its purpose is to give information to a form suitable for further use.
Information processing — the set of actions performed over the available information that lead to a particular change in the appearance or character of the view.
Storing information is to pass it in time to ensure the invariability of the material conditions of media. To reduce the search time information that is stored, it is advisable to organize it, using the classification criteria.
Practical and scientific value of information is ambiguous, so the information should be periodically evaluated to identify the suitability of future use. However, note that the storage of information which has lost its value associated with the inappropriate costs and makes it difficult to find the necessary information. The premature destruction of required data can have a negative impact on your business or organization.
Information must be destroyed in the cases of aging or after repeated use.
Considered operations are carried out in the operation of information systems. Information system means a set of units of storage, channels of movement, technical means of collecting, processing, storing information and its carriers.
A significant time main role in the process of information management belonged to a man — the employee of the Executive office of his relatively limited abilities. At this time, the person functioned within the management information system with manual data processing.
The next step in the development of information systems is the establishment of systems of complex mechanization of data processing. Technical base of such systems are table electronic digital computers and specialized hardware processing certain types of information (e.g., texture machine).
Now management requires a transition to integrated data processing systems (SOD). SOD is based on two important methodological assumptions.
First, its creation involves the separation of the creative process of developing management decisions on the technical operations implementation of an information system, centralization in a special unit of the Executive office. Second, the organization SOD associated with the introduction of rigid, scientifically based technologies of creation of information management of socio-economic processes.
The most important differences SAD from other information systems is:
organization of data flow between the subject and
the object of control;
the construction of a single centralized database of fixed data, which serve all units of the management apparatus;
development and implementation of a clear technological process procedures, data conversion and storage, the formation of the intermediate documents;
the implementation of the technological process of data processing by a specialized unit of the management apparatus;
the concentration of creative operations associated with the implementation of analytical work and decision-making in a linear and functional units of the control system.
Improvement of processes of accumulation, storage, processing and transmission of information is the key to improving the efficiency of administrative activities in General.