Mechanization and authorization of administrative work
Increasing proportions of social production, the presence of enterprises of different forms of ownership, specialization and extension of cooperative production dramatically increase the amount of management information, complicated control functions and increase administrative work.
To execute the increasing volume of work without increasing the number of administrative personnel required to significantly increase the efficiency of work of this category of workers. The problem can be solved only by introducing the methods of scientific organization of labor, extensive mechanization and automation of works performed by administrative personnel. The latter factor plays a crucial role in enhancing the effectiveness of the work of managerial employees.
Mechanization and automation of administrative work* carried out in two directions. First, as noted above, the introduction of modern computer technology, the second — the introduction of vehicles office equipment and offset printing. The greatest effect is achieved when combining the use of computer hardware and office equipment.
With the expansion of the range of vehicles office equipment and their technical capabilities had improved and developed methods of their application; from the mechanization of individual transactions to complex mechanization management processes. The most effective system of integrated mechanization created by the development and implementation of organisational project based on the requirements of the LAPTOP. Integrated system of mechanization improves labor management productivity by an average of 15 %, and for individual employees in two or more times.
The need for mechanization of various works, processes, operations, managerial work has led to the establishment of the various funds of the office equipment. A wide range of modern means of office equipment, which differ in functions performed, applied technological processes, operational capabilities, design features and other characteristics, necessitates their classification.
The classification allows you to organize - according to certain criteria, all office equipment into groups, subgroups, types, contributes to the formation of a common terminology and a better orientation of consumers in the choice of means of office equipment for the conditions.
The construction of the modern classifications are based on the use of such a classification criterion, which is based on the nature of the information management process. According to this, office equipment klassificeret the functions performed by them in respect of the information or of the media document.
According to this classification the basis of all office equipment can be divided into the following classes: drafting of documents; copying and rapid reproduction documents; processing of documents; storage, search and transportation of documents; technical means of communication.
To means the compilation of documents includes all types of printing machines, writing machines, dictaphone technique.
The most common of these tools printing machines. Used in the management of all types of printing machines, but preference should be given to electric. The application of the electric writing machines facilitates the work of technical personnel, since a number of operations (underline, turning carriage, etc.) mechants. The force of the blow on the keys is reduced, which contributes to the reduction of occupational diseases.
Writing machines designed for the automated processing of texts. So, a writing machine "Ortext-21" carries out the processes of assembling and editing the text and table documents, estimated processing and proof-reading alphanumeric information, semi-automatic and programmatic sorting, recording, playback.
Writing machines can be equipped with a small computational units, which provide the implementation of some of the calculations and programming processes for the preparation of documents. Using writing machines successfully solves the problem tripartisan letters. A set of standard phrases is stored in the memory of the machine. The text of the letter is formed from a set of corresponding code numbers, which list is transmitted to the operator, usually by phone. The text prepared by the letters always has the correct location, there is a possibility of occurrence of errors, since it is verified in the process of preparing the program.
The new direction of automation of document preparation is the use of modern computers, equipped determnine devices designed to display on the screen of the texts entered from the keyboard or a special magnetic media.
Special programs enable to edit the text: to correct the error, replace the words, exclude unwanted parts of the text, change the placement of offers, paragraphs, to visually align the text. The composed document is saved in computer memory can be at any time printed in the required number of copies or moved on a magnetic disk.
The magnetic disk can be put into another computer or teletype. The use of computer technology will allow future access to proposed by academician V. M. Glushkov paperless technology management.
The introduction of voice technology allowed to avoid wastage of time administrative staff to prepare the documents, since recording is performed with the voice.
Now developed a number of dictsize, the use of which provided for creation of a centralized, ditomasso, gave the opportunity to organize the collection of information not only from jobs, but from different points outside the offices.
Backup and rapid reproduction (reprography) include means of Photocopying, daskopoulos, mikrokapsulirovanie, electrograph, termocoppia, electronograph, operative Polygraphy.
Photographic means is the apparatus of production and contact printing, including automatic fotoustanovki type "Fotostat", the operational contact copy of text and bound originals type "Technocop" the money matrix of copy type of "Ve - rifax", etc.
Traditional datograph funds, the main disadvantage of which is to use transparent originals, by contact, has expanded its capabilities after the creation of the reproductive disastrous, application dataplot, datkuliak etc.
Intensively developed tools mikrokapsulirovanie. This is due to the desire for miniaturization of information, the need to create dublat documents to micro - media for the rapid multiplication of them.
Along with the use of units such as UDC-2 "Documentor" with small multiplicities reduction equipment for high and very high ratio reduction using instead galotana coatings — photochromic. The use of the latter provides a reduction of up to 250-300 times.
Integrated application mikrokapsulirovanie (shooting devices, means reading and copying equipment with automated search tools, duplication of microfilm, etc.) greatly enhances the application of mikrokapsulirovanie.
Among the means of copying the most widely electrografia copy. This is due to the efficiency of the copying (up to 1s—1 copy), low cost copies, with flexible use of the equipment, that is, with different sizes of paper media, mkaplan, of concepts for future publication, aperture cards, copying on different media. The most perfect devices of this kind are produced abroad by firms "Xerox", "Canon", etc. Russian-made electrophotographic apparatus in the management of widely used reproduction apparatus ERA-M, ERA-2, pocketbook VEGA, NO desktop, and large format for mass reproduction of documents REM-600K.
Thermographic copying is based on the use of thermosetting papers impregnated with special substances which darken when heated.
The main advantage of this process is its speed, the absence of any pravnik, darkened rooms. Termocoppia convenient to use in offices, secretariats to quickly copy business documents. their size is within a portable printing machine, and the speed of copying one original — 4-6 sec. Modern thermocouples machines copy only sheet of paper in a specific format, and copying of manuscripts, ink give short-lived copies that can be stored no more than 4— month.
Thermocouples machines "Lightning" and "Folder" provide for thermosetting ordinary paper with the use of thermocoupling paper printed offset and hectographic forms. Using TECH can also cover the documents with a protective film.
Elektrostaticheskie (elektroiskry) instruments provide copies to special rotoplus, which is then used as a form for reproduction on a rotator. The use of these funds for reproduction of official documents provides a number of advantages. First, the electric apparatus prepare the form without the use of "stencils", a preparation process which is more time-consuming and requires special skills. Secondly, the "stencils" is almost impossible to prepare graphic materials, and with the help electronograph can be quickly propagated various documentation with images.
Third, using electronographic devices with pre-prepared layouts made copies, that is, from the originals created by, for example, of the three documents: textual, tabular and graphical.
With electronicaly machines widely used apparatus "Elika", intended for the manufacture of screen printing forms on elektroprovodnoi rotoplus mainly of black-and-white and line art originals, done in pencil, ink, typewritten or printed. Weight of machine 28 kg, and the time of manufacture of the same form — 7 min.
When choosing a device for reproduction need to know the format, configuration, and type of physical media from which you want to copy, because copy machines are designed taking into account these and other parameters of the text.
The presence of a wide range of means of copying has reduced the time of preparation of originals for reproduction and has significantly enhanced the use of means of operative Polygraphy. Along with well-known rotaprint in the practice of managerial labor for the reproduction of a small (within the size of the typewritten sheet and martirano) from 20 to 150 copies.- - CV documentation introduced rotators, hectography, copiers.
Rotator DAR-50 is designed for the reproduction of documents by way of screen printing. The device is made in the desktop version, equipped with electric and hand-operated, weight 47 kg. Performance rotator — 50-100 prints per minute.
In addition, mastered the production of small office offset machines performance 5000 prints in 1 hour for paper formats 118ХЮ5 and 356X229 mm.
Mastered the mass production of the sample hectograph printing intended for imprinting in various documents of the individual texts, which is of great practical value in addressing issues tripartisan documents. Such a hectograph has a capacity of up to 35 prints per 1 min at a weight of up to 120 kg.
Part of processing documents includes folding, arcoscephale and piperonal machines, laminators, sivac, numbering, converted - krivac etc.
Folding and Listern machines allows to mechanize labor-intensive processes of Assembly and selection of documents in separate complexes. Folding machines make up the sheet and put them in envelopes with a speed of 1000 pieces for 1 hour. 20-section Arkusha - Berlina machine is commercially available, MPU-3 get sheets two formats 297X420 210X297 mm and has a capacity of 1200 sheets in 1 hour.
Adrenalin machine designed for the application of texts, which are repeated on different documents way hectograph print. In addition to printing the addresses, they make lists, fill in the stencil documents at up to 1000 in 1 hour. Adresovana machine has a capacity of 1,800 prints per 1 h with the print size 70X36 mm and capacity of the cassette 100 forms.
For the destruction of unnecessary documents are papersresearch machines "Mystery" (capacity of 1000 sheets in 1 h) BOOM-1 (capacity 25 kg paper for 1 hour).
Laminators designed for application double-sided protective coating for documents. This type of machines include laminators "Blik-100" and "Blik-300". As laminating film is used specplus Mylar on the basis that prolonged storage does not peel from the base document and does not lose its transparency.
The maximum width of the lamination 100 mm ("Highlight-100") and 320 mm ("Highlight-300"), the performance is about the same: 1-0,8 mm/min, the thickness of the document 1 mm for "Blik-100" and 0.3 mm for "Blik-300".
For surgical stitching instruments are a variety of electrical and mechanical schive Chi, for numbering — automoderator.
Expeditions and offices with a large number of e-mails are used konvertovat a capacity of up to 3,000 envelopes in 1 hour.
For independent group means of storage, search and transportation of documents include trays and boxes for efficient work with the documents and the equipment for equipment of libraries and archives, folders for storing documents, cabinets for sorting mail, air (air) mail.
The pneumatic tube system "Magistral-1" is designed for the rapid internal transport of documents rolled into a tube and placed in a special cartridge.
Paiki recorders, binders, folders, trays for papers create certain facilities for the rational organization of workplaces of management workers.
The services of experts and leaders in the industry produces two - and one-way, rotating, metal and wood racks of different sizes and purposes. Rack SBP-20 has a cart that moves with a flywheel on rails fixed to the floor of the room. To sort the correspondence in expeditions apply cabinets.
The technical communication tools that are used in daily work of managers and specialists, is the telephone. To improve the efficiency of the use of telephony facilitates the use of telephone amplifiers, automatic telephone dialing automatic telephone responders, secretaries.
The use of telephone amplifiers facilitates the recording of information that is transmitted by phone, it frees the worker from having to hold the handset. Installed next to the amplifier, the recorder records the transmitted information by phone. A telephone amplifier can also be used to conduct short-term meetings between staff located in different localities or on different objects.
Using the telephone apparatus with automatic dialing, type "autodial" or "Eleap" is possible without interrupting the telephone conversation, connect with other subscribers. "Autodialer" is designed for 24 "Eleap" 60 seven-digit number. The subscriber is invoked by pressing one of the buttons under which the encoded number.
The answering machine gives the ability, in the absence of the employee in the workplace to notify the caller with the necessary information. The device provides recording of up to four answer choices.
Secretary-consists of an answering machine and voice recorder. Is used for recording within the allotted time for the call and response in the absence of the employee at the workplace.
The telephone will also include outfits direct operational communication (intercom speakerphone): PTU-5, PTU-15M, "Garcas-20", "Pskov-2", the Director's installation of the Handsfree (DGS-1 m), and switches the operational telephone ("the Crystal-70").
Lately prevalent also means Telegraph, facsimile and teleevo-glavnogo communication: telegraphs, faxes, Fax-modems. The advantages of these means of communication is the documentation of management information and facsimile of original documents.
There are two basic forms of use of office equipment: decentralized and centralized. In some cases, a combined form with different prevalence of one form or another. At a decentralized method of office equipment can be used individually by each employee in the workplace, if required for permanent use, collectively a group of employees, one working room, land, units, if the funds necessary for the performance of occasional operations. Centralized. the method is applied to the mechanization perform certain types of work across agencies. This method is primarily used in centralized specialized units: the printing and tape-printing Bureau, copyvalue-duplicating services, expeditions, archives, IVTs, etc.
Some types of office equipment used only centrally and others are centralized and decentralized.
The most effective is the centralized method is the use of office equipment. This method compared to the decentralized delivers higher productivity, allowing to perform the same amount of work requires a much smaller number of pieces of equipment and, accordingly, lower costs for its purchase.
A broad, integrated introduction of means of mechanization and automation allows to significantly improve the efficiency of administrative work.