Features of the organization and purpose of consumer cooperation
According to the Law of Ukraine "On consumer cooperatives" it is a voluntary Association of citizens for joint economic activity with the aim of improving their economic and social status. Consumer cooperation carries out trading, procurement, production and other activities not prohibited by current legislation of Ukraine. The tasks of consumer cooperation also included support for social and cultural development of the village, folk arts and crafts, participation in international cooperative movement. The activity of consumer cooperation based on the principles of voluntariness, democracy, social justice, mutual aid, cooperation, free economic functioning in conditions of market relations in the national economy of Ukraine.
The main component of this system is a consumer society, where a large part of the fixed assets of consumer cooperatives, chain stores, cafeterias, bakeries, procurement and other enterprises. Through consumer companies buyers have the bulk of the goods, through this link of consumer cooperation affects productivity, standard of living, way of life of rural residents.
Every consumer society need to be considered in the unity of social organizations and economic enterprises. This fundamental feature distinguishes it from all other social associations. The society volunteered to join the individual members, which take material part in the formation of his collective (group) ownership, together and on an equal footing manage, bear a joint liability for the performance of their enterprises use the services of a personal and social nature.
Cooperative farms, by their very nature tend to work on the principles of self-reliance and economic responsibility. However, as important as these moments are, they nevertheless are manifestations of the functioning of the cooperatives as democratic social associations in the municipality. The initiative of the population and democratic control are fundamental principles of cooperation.
However, the cooperative form of economic activity by itself does not guarantee participatory democracy and the active participation of cooperative members in solving various issues of their activities. Can be viable forms of government, if they are not filled with democracy, the living creativity of the masses.
In the former USSR cooperative form vlasnosti is considered secondary compared with the public. As a consequence, the development of consumer cooperative societies is artificially constrained by administration, willful interference in its activities, and limited opportunities for the development of material-technical base and social infrastructure. Violation of democratic principles and statutes has been associated denigration of the role of the members-shareholders of consumer cooperation — the real masters and owners of its property.
Therefore, the implementation of the cooperative management principles does not happen automatically, and is provided only through the conscious activity of people. If the activity is in the form of administration, it creates congestion and processes. And the "braking mechanism" cooperative development can be caused by both. the actions of the state apparatus and the internally-cooperative relations.
Now the problem is that not only determine the economic bases of functioning of consumer cooperatives in perelinkovka and market conditions, but also a set of the purposes to which it should seek to restore the cooperative principles.
Social-media and economic activities of consumer cooperation is the basis of the presence in the mechanism of its functioning goals of two types: public and economic nature.
The purposes of a public nature include: Association of consumers for cooperative economic activities; sauceny shareholders in community activities in the cooperatives and the unions of consumer societies; equality between people; cultural-educational and sports work.
Association of consumers for joint economic activities. Consumer cooperatives emerged in different countries of the world in the form of voluntary public associations of the poor. These organizations (cooperatives) were created by pooling funds of the common people especially for the purchase of quantities of goods and selling them retail to cooperative members (shareholders). The necessity of pooling funds of individuals was dictated by the laws of the market pricing: significantly influence the formation of prices can only powerful economic actors of market relations, and not every consumer is particular. Feeling the effect of joint activities in the sphere of commodity - consumption, people started to join in other forms of cooperatives: production, marketing, credit etc. Thus is realized the natural tendency of people to joint economic activities.
Consumer cooperation of Ukraine unites now 10.9 million of shareholders or approximately 21 % of the total population.
The involvement of shareholders in community activities in the cooperatives and the unions of consumer societies. One of the most important principles of management of consumer societies and sporovski is the principle of their successive governments. Self-management in consumer cooperatives is the Foundation of effective funktsionuvannya and compliance activities of the subject of management with the interests of the control object. According to this principle, the management of consumer co-operation is not degitto function of a certain group of people, although it does not exclude the professionalization of this kind of activity where you need special knowledge. experience. Self-governance functions of consumer cooperative societies can do by themselves shareholders, combining this activity in varying degrees in their professional work. This allows for solutions development managers-profe - sonally cooperative farms to take into account the multifaceted interests of the population served, promptly correct possible errors, to ensure proactive communication with shareholders. Attracting shareholders to the management of consumer cooperation is possible only under the condition of high professionalism of managers of the cooperative economy, strong tradition of respect for the statutory requirements of all parts of the consumer cooperatives, which require to solve the existing problems and contradictions in accordance with the developed and fixed in charters of democratic procedures.
Thanks to the implementation of this objective, the cooperatives are not only a form of democracy, self-government, stimulating the initiatives and initiative of the masses, but flexible, viable production and economic structures.
Promoting equality between people. Rogalnikova of the cooperative, adopted in 1844, among the seven principles rochdelsky one of them was worded as follows: "the co-op itself does not partiopatikka or religious activities." Thus in the activity of consumer cooperatives approved by the real equality between people regardless of their party, racial, and religion. In addition, this goal will also achieve compliance with another principle of the cooperative movement: "One share — one vote". Therefore, regardless of the. the amount of his share, in contrast to joint stock companies, consumer companies and their unions are not focused on the financial situation of the members and thereby affirm the equality of all its members.
Cultural-educational and sports work. Consumer cooperation has always been the carrier of culture in the village. Funds from economic activity are not spent only for expansion but also for the equipment of libraries, clubs, model agricultural farms, implementation of new varieties of plants and types of productive farm animals for the development of Amateur. Cultural activities of consumer cooperation is also to introduction into the life of the rural population of modern goods of cultural-household: refrigerators, washing machines and the like.
Economic objectives of the consumer cooperatives are to provide the needs of the shareholders and the rest of the population in goods and services, the economic independence of cooperatives and unions, protecting the interests of shareholders and the public on the market of goods and services to support the development of agricultural production etc.
Meeting the needs of shareholders and the rest of the population. This objective is stipulated by the nature of consumers cooperative societies that originated and exists to meet the needs of shareholders in the products, assistance in marketing of agricultural products etc., Consumer cooperatives also serves other segments of the population who are not its shareholders. Currently, the consumer cooperation of Ukraine serves 22 million people, or 43 % of the population, including 16.2 million people of rural population and 6.2 million population living in regional centres and towns.
The economic independence of the cooperatives and unions. Consumer cooperation organizations are working on the principles of commercial calculation, that is, cover their costs through income and receive income, which are used for further expansion of economic activity and social needs of shareholders and workers of consumer cooperative societies.
Consumer cooperation is essentially a social-media and business organization. Therefore, it is unacceptable bertrice one of these components. This applies primarily to the problem of the special role of the income of the cooperatives, assessment of efficiency of activity of consumer cooperation as a whole, its individual parts and components. Long time consumer cooperatives was considered a form of trade, which is governed in its activities by the principle of profit maximization and the interests of shareholders. However, this approach excludes consumer cooperatives from the system of market relations as an equal with the other subject of the market economy. In the conditions of market relations, consumer cooperatives should seek to maximise their income. Special social mechanism connected to the stage of distribution of profits obtained when they are used in the form of direct charges on equity contributions and indirect — as a means of improving the economic activities of cooperatives and unions.
Economic protection of the interests of investors in the market of goods and services. This protection is implemented by establishing firm prices for goods, the fight against unnecessary intermediation cost effective management of the cooperative economy, the return to the shareholders part of the profit of the cooperatives in the form of charges on equity contributions, etc.
Support the development of agricultural production. Consumer cooperatives are mainly agricultural population, i.e. those individuals which, as a rule, not just consumers of agricultural products, but also its producers. In the market of agricultural products, they also act as sellers and as buyers, i.e., are carriers of production and consumer interest. Consequently, consumer cooperation is economically interested in increasing the production of agricultural products because their purchase is an important branch of activities of consumer societies and spousal.
Now, consumer cooperatives have organizational and material support to the development of farms, agricultural production cooperatives and other agricultural producers to solve their economic and social problems.
The aims of consumer cooperative societies derived from the objectives and principles of the international cooperative movement, formulated and proven for almost 150 years - the period of its existence. In concentrated form they are enshrined in the charters of the organizations of consumer cooperation. Thus, article 6 of the Approximate Charter of consumer society stated: "the Main goals and objectives of the consumer society is the satisfaction of its members and of the population served in goods and services, promoting their labour and social activity, welfare and cultural level."
Based on common goals of consumer cooperatives as social-media and business organizations goals are formulated on the performance of cooperatives and their unions for a certain period, etc.
Subjects the wording of the purposes of activity of consumer cooperatives are the representative bodies of shareholders: the congresses of all levels, conferences, meetings of commissioners and precinct General meeting of shareholders of the consumer society. Executive-administrative bodies of consumer cooperatives in the face of the boards at all levels implement the Agency's strategic goals developed by the higher authorities of co-operative government and formulate goals and objectives mainly operative procedure.