Analysis and design of organizations of consumer cooperation
The analysis of existing organizational forms of management is carried out by identifying the main factors that influence them.
The first factor is the compliance of the management subject to the requirements of the control object. The organizational forms of management of any object are determined by its features, condition, trends, targets and challenges, which are solved in the process of its activities.
So, forms of governance of cooperative retail trade fully take into account the specifics of shops as objects of control: the number, relatively small size, low level of specialization, a large territorial dispersion.
However, the organizational forms of management become not only positive but also negative qualities of the object of management. For example, the small size of these so-called retail trade companies and even consumer societies is a consequence of the fragmentation of the trade network and its regional dispersion. Therefore, improvement of organizational forms of management is closely related to improving facilities management.
However, you need to consider a dialectical relationship between the control system and the controlled system. The purposes, tasks, peculiarities and tendencies of development of object of management determine certain changes in the organizational forms of management. Organizational forms of management can significantly influence the control object, determining the direction and content of its development. Thus, the organization in the system of consumer cooperatives of the district branch associations of the enterprises of public catering (food plants) has led to the violation of the parallelism of the network development of catering enterprises and retailers, which was observed in consumer societies.
An important factor that affects the organizational forms of management is the status and trends of development of interrelated sectors of the economy. In recent years, the industry experienced an active process of concentration of production with simultaneous deepening of specialization, resulting in large production enterprises. they must comply with the same large shopping malls, primarily in the wholesale segment.
Otherwise, decreases the effect of the concentration of production. Besides a large wholesale organizations and enterprises have a more effective impact on the production industry of consumer goods.
Interconnected organizational forms of management sectors of the cooperative economy, in particular retail and wholesale trade. However, the most important are the first, since the main purpose of a wholesale link — ensure uninterrupted supply of goods of retail trade enterprises. These requirements most closely matches the tendency of creation of large wholesale bases, warehouses which can incorporate a range of products in accordance with the principles of the formation of it in retail trade.
The organizational form of the office of cooperative trade largely determined also by the characteristics of certain groups of goods. So, the requirement of compliance of the organizational forms of trade management the specifics of the goods they sell, most of the buildings in such organizational forms of management, as a wholesale trading firm in the trade of food and nonfood commodities Association "Coopener", "Alkoopttorg", etc.
In modern conditions the cooperative economy cannot develop effectively without an appropriate management techniques.
The use of computer technology allows for the decision of tasks of planning, accounting and regulation of modern economic and mathematical methods that reduces the complexity of management operations, increased the scientific validity of management decisions ensures the efficiency of management.
Development and implementation of the consumer cooperation system of mechanized processing of economic and other information allows to increase the efficiency of processing large amounts of information, organize information flows, freeing up staff from time-consuming management of accounting work to creative work, to improve the management structure, including its organizational forms, to promote a shared culture of managerial work.
Given the considered factors that affect the choice of organizational forms of management co-operative farm, assess the effectiveness of the current forms of governance.
Quantitatively applicable form of management is evaluated by the following indicators: profitability and cost of turnover; labour productivity;
the number of employees per one employee of the management apparatus;
the proportion of managerial employees in total employment in the cooperative organization;
the proportion of the consumption Fund of management personnel in the General Fund of consumption;
the share of expenditures on administration in total expenditure turnover;
the share of the operational unit in the total number of management staff.
This assessment of efficiency of organizational forms of management in all sectors activities of cooperative organizations. Then the results of the analysis, develop recommendations for improving the current forms of governance or the application of new.
The sequence of stages on the creation of new forms of governance, consider the example of a possible reorganization respoiise in district consumer society.
In the first stage, it is first necessary to obtain the consent of the General meeting (meeting of representatives) of all consumer societies of the district on the reorganization, on the second—to create local authorities of the district consumer society. Further, based on the data analysis provide for the future management of the scheme, in terms of the required number of levels of management. After that, designing organizational forms of governance at a particular level. So, at the level of a regional consumer society — a self-supporting Association of retail trade companies, next level, nerasprostranenii retail trade enterprises (shops. branches) and further shopping and retail network. Zaproektirovany thus a control circuit of heaven - spouthwest determine the number of retail trade enterprises, on the basis of the administrative-territorial division of the region rajjpotrebobshhestva and the optimum sizes of them. As a rule, nerasprostranenii retail commercial enterprises organized in the settlements, United by a particular village Council. However, specific operating conditions may require the organization of several retail establishments on the territory of the Council or, on the contrary, the organization of retail trade enterprises, which will operate on the territory of several Tips.
In this case, it is necessary to proceed from the requirements of optimality of the size of retail trade enterprises according to the criteria of the control ranges and turnover. Criterion of the control range requires submission to the Director of this retail commercial enterprise the appropriate number of stores and small retail network that would more effectively make management decisions and supervise the work of subordinates. Usually in a retail trade enterprise include 3-4 1-2 small retail shops and businesses. Optimization of the relative turnover involves a mathematical modeling depending on the level of cost retail enterprises from the value of turnover. This simulation is realized by the construction of the regression equation of costs turnover data alignment according to the equation of a parabola of the second order
y = a + bx + CX2
y = a + bx + c / x
where the level of direct costs retail businesses (compensation of employees, maintenance of premises, interest on loans, etc.);
x — the size of the annual turnover of retail businesses; a, B, C — parameters of the equations.
Analysis of the suitability of one or the other of the equation is carried out by appropriate mathematical methods and supplemented by economic analysis.
After you have selected the corresponding organizational forms of management co-operative farm, develop a plan for the selection and proper placement of executives and specialists in management and in the horizontal cut.