Organizing and conducting internal meetings
The office meeting as a way of collective problem-solving is one of the important forms of management. Managers and professionals spend a business meeting 20-30 % of the time. However, as experience shows, meetings do not always give the expected effect because of the continuous-Vilna technology of organization and holding.
Generally, the meetings convene too often, and prepare them to be unsatisfactory. To participate in these activities attract many people, mostly CEOs. Unreasonable duration of the main report and debate fuzzy style meetings lead to tightening them. Decisions made at the meetings, often inadequately documented, and in the process of implementing poorly controlled and this reduces the effectiveness of them. So often there is a need for re-holding the meeting on the same issues.
The rational organization of such business meetings primarily lies in how quickly and efficiently they occur, and most importantly, how effective their solutions.
Improving the practice of business meetings starts with the preparation of these meetings. Training needs to begin with a plan of major business meetings for the future — a month, quarter, year. Making a plan, you need to be careful when defining the qualitative and quantitative composition of the participants.
To participate in the meeting should involve officials most knowledgeable about the issues discussed at the meeting that gives the opportunity to make an effective decision. But they as practice shows, are not always heads of departments.
-We should not think that if instead of the head in the meeting invited specialist, who is responsible for this area of work, it violated the authority of the head. On the contrary, modern style of leadership is that the leader has surrounded himself with qualified professionals. able to take responsibility within their competence.
The number of participants, it should be remembered that it is not always the quantity turns into quality. On the contrary, the more people at the meeting, the more opinions, the debate, which can often be buried the theme of the meeting.
Plan business meetings coordinated with all interested agencies and officials, shall be approved by the supervisor and is sent to all units. This allows you to organize meetings, their frequency, qualitative and quantitative composition of the participants, and also removes the problem of urgency and awareness of the participants. Of course, meetings may be convened and all of a sudden. In addition, the plan gives the opportunity for a lot of urgent meetings put into the category of routine.
Preparation of the business meetings is not limited to drawing up a plan of their conduct. The next stage of preparation for the business of the meeting notice to its members. 2-3 days before the business meeting should inform the participants about the time and place of holding, and changes to the agenda.
The meeting also includes its transfer to participants 2-3 days prior to the meeting agenda, the reports, or at least abstracts, of the draft decision. Of particular importance for the effectiveness of the meeting have prepared and published the report. By doing this, opening the meeting, immediately proceed to the discussion of the report. Thus you can save a lot of time, because people will come to the meeting prepared, which will accelerate the decision-making process.
To enhance the effect in advance to prepare and distribute another document — a list of persons who will participate in the debate, which will facilitate strict adherence to optimal rules 3-5 min.
More extensive statements at the meetings of the planning is rare.
As a rule, mostly hold meetings in the office of the head. However, it is better to convene them in a special room, preferably equipped with technical equipment: tape recorders, loudspeaker communication, other means of communication, special tables and other equipment. The area of such premises do not have to be big, not needed here fluorescent lighting, scene and the like. Special facilities are convenient in that the head may be present only during the discussion of the most important issues on the agenda, and the rest of the time working in his office. The same opportunity to have other members of the meeting.
In some cases (especially for "field trips", "updates") of the meeting can be carried out standing up.
The essential question is the timing of the meeting. In practice, the managers try to hold a business meeting at the beginning of the working day. However, this is wrong, because held in the beginning of the day the meeting often affects the efficiency of further work of its members.
Man has two peaks of increased efficiency: the first from about 9 to 12-13 hours, and the second — between 16 and 18 hours. The meeting is best done during the second peak. This will be an additional factor encouraging participants to work quickly and efficiently.
Regarding the frequency of meetings, it is better to hold two meetings a week, each half an hour than one lasting an hour.
The effectiveness of the meeting largely depends on its duration. Practice shows that after the start of the meeting to 45 minutes and its course of activity of participants increases. Between 45 min and 90 min activity stabiliziruemost, and then drops sharply.
Usually at this time the room starts, the noise, the conversations that require the intervention of the presiding officer. After putting in order the activity of participants is growing again. However, this period is called growth period negative activity. Usually at this point of the meeting taking the most critical decisions affecting those or other workers. Negative activity of the participants of the meeting observed during the period from 90 to 120 min after the start of it. Then, if the meeting lasts more than two hours, a period of indifference to solutions.
After two hours of continuous work the participants are no longer trying to make an effective decision, their thoughts focus on other issues, and most of all they are willing to soon the meeting ended.
Note that the optimal duration of mental activity of large numbers of people is an average of 40-45 minutes. Therefore, in the education system the duration of academic hour is 45 minutes accepted with mandatory subsequent break. Most people have a physiological boundary fatigue when combined equals one hour. If circumstances require a longer work, be sure to arrange a 5-10-minute breaks after each hour of work.
The effectiveness of the meeting depends on the style of its implementation, which is set by the presiding judge. Starting a meeting, you need to set its rules. As a rule, the report is withdrawn 20-25 minutes on speeches in the debate — 2,5—3 minutes If given more time, the speakers povtoryaetsya, lose train of thought, digress, discuss. During the meeting of the rules, one should stick to whatever grade of speakers, although in practice there are cases when the performance of the chief rules is not limited, it Should be remembered that the ability to speak publicly is one of the essential traits a capable leader. So you need to cultivate brevity, the ability to briefly articulate their thoughts. The presiding officer should closely monitor the progress of thought from a speaker not to allow violation of the regulations only as an exception.
The discussions at the meeting, concluded with the decisions that need to be implemented. Experience shows that if the results of the meeting not issued any policy document if the control is poor, the need for a similar meeting occurs again. So you need to take it as a rule to issue in addition to the minutes of the meeting still appropriate plan, order, decree, schedule and to exercise strict control over the implementation of them.
The special forms of meetings should include the authoritarian meeting, the meeting in the form of "brainstorming" on the issue, the ring system of decision-making.
If the need arises in the shortest possible time to make a certain decision, the Manager can resort to authoritarian forms of meeting. In this case, it acts rapidly, makes suggestions, without reaching General agreement.
It is important to make sure that his opinion is correct that the best proposals no. It is important to the ability of the supervisor to monitor the reaction of those present at the meeting. by the proposals to respond quickly to the new approach, expressed by an attendee of the meeting.
A very interesting form of meetings by the method of "brainstorming" which is used for decision-making with complex, novel problems. This method was first used in 1938 by A. F. Osborn.
There are two types of brainstorming: individual and collective. Both are based on the principle "pending discussion". To stimulate the emergence of new ideas in the process of creative problem solving, these types of brainstorming used in the following sequence:
Individual brainstorming is the beginning and the end of collective brainstorming and a means for the emergence and maturation of associations.
Free, new associations are often detected when a collective "brainstorming" session than for an individual. In the course of collective brainstorming of the Association activities of each individual are stimulated by two pulses. The first impulse consists in the fact that each plan member maskoutcolor team arises as a result of previous improvements to it. At the same time, the idea expressed by the individual, contributes to the emergence of associative ideas in the other" members of the team.
The next pulse — competition, rivalry. Because creativity is largely dependent on the efforts, competition stimulates the appearance of effort.
When the collective "brainstorming" uses both pulse at the same time.
The meeting according to the method of brainstorming must be well prepared. Head of creative team at least two days according to team members the time and place of the meeting and informs about the problem to be addressed. Information helps team members to navigate and gives them the opportunity to reflect on this issue before the meeting. The group leader needs to develop their proposals for solving the problem. Once the members of the group weakens the ability to come up with new ideas, a leader needs to offer.
All team members must be under the same conditions. While conducting such a meeting should:
to exclude criticism; the only task of the team is the advancement of ideas;
contribute to the emergence of free associations, the bolder and more unusual the idea, the better; the team members need to Express all the ideas they have;
to seek many ideas; the more ideas, the greater the likelihood of using them, it is proved that the number of plans is reborn in their quality;
combine and improve ideas; participants should mutually improve, combine, and direct the intentions of others. The designs of the other can be used as a "springboard" for the designs of another individual. The best design of an individual is usually a combination of designs of other team members.
A member of the group can one show to offer only one plan — otherwise it would be difficult to control the course of the meeting. Team members do not have the right to use the sentences prepared in advance. If both want to speak to several members of staff, preference is given to those whose proposals have arisen by Association with the previous proposals.
All suggestions made during the meeting are numbered and recorded by the Secretary.
No one thought is not recorded together with the name of the one who proposed to her.
Mascotguy the meeting should never have a formal character. The only formal moment is to record thoughts. The meeting is held in the form of friendly conversation. Comic suggestions for solving the problems are also recorded.
In conclusion, choose the best offer and decide which ones you can implement.
Interesting is the use in Japan of the ring system of decision-making — kreslo. It is what it is. If the Manager needs to discuss with experts of a particular subject, a new order of doing business, etc., he is in no hurry to convene a meeting. Prepared first draft of the novation, which in turn is passed to the experts according to the list drawn up by the head. And everyone needs a day time to consider the proposed innovation and give their comments in writing. So, if six employees, the draft decision with comments back to the head in six days.
As a rule, at the next meeting only invited those whose opinion the Director did not quite understand. Such a meeting is quick and efficient, because it involved employees who know in advance what it was about, as they got acquainted with the draft decision and the comments of the previous professionals. In this regard, the list is compiled on the principle of the increase of competence of experts on a particular issue. This method allows to reduce the number of scheduled meetings by 20-30 %.