Organization and conducting of commercial negotiations
Commercial negotiations are a special separate kind of business communication in form and content. In the form of commercial negotiations of this individual interview, as opposed to communicating with the audience, in the process of commercial negotiations atmosphere of closer contact between partners. However, commercial negotiations are conducted primarily between the delegations of the partners.
In the sense of commercial negotiations represent a process of gradual consensus among partners in the presence of interests which coincide and sometimes contradictory.
Preparation for conducting of commercial negotiations is to plan the organization and carrying out of admission of partners.
Planning for negotiations is usually the initiator, and covering a range of issues that need to be addressed prior to the commencement of negotiations: preparation and pre-planning the content of the negotiations; development of items for discussion in the negotiations;
the definition of the problems and needs of the client; receiving a confirmation from the client that he really has such needs; development of a system evidence that products or services of the enterprise-the initiator can solve the problems and meet the needs of the client; summarizing profitability of proposed connections; analysis and control of the preparation of the negotiations.
After the development of such a plan of future commercial negotiations must be agreed with the partner terms and the program of the visit of its representatives in the organization (company), whose representative you are. This agreement is made by exchange of letters or faxes.
The visit of representatives of the negotiating partner need to prepare, providing a meeting of representatives of the negotiating partner at the airport or railway station, escort them to the hotel, assistance in solving everyday problems etc. Our service is far from perfect and can create for guests unusual, uncomfortable moments. If we can eliminate the possible discomfort, it can be very beneficial to Express themselves in front of foreigners and domestic partners in the negotiations.
It is also reasonable to worry that arrived was warmly greeted at the entrance, led to a good reception area, offered to remove outer clothing, drink a Cup of coffee or tea.
If the table set ashtray, it is a signal that you can smoke, but before lighting, you need to ask permission from the women present. If ashtrays on the table, no, you can't smoke. In this case, you need to prepare the area for lovers of cigarettes, but can smoke only during a break in negotiations.
You must also put in proper form of a meeting room. It should be clean, not stuffy and not noisy. Chairs should be comfortable and not state against Windows can prevent the sun or divert the street landscape. In any case, guests are encouraged to choose for themselves.
If the meeting room has a telephone, it is necessary at the time of negotiations off. Should all contribute to a relaxed conversation that the partners could talk without interference and not be distracted. On the front door it is advisable to hang a sign "do Not enter negotiations".
By the time of arrival, the entire group participating in the negotiations must be complete. A bad impression is made by the owners, who are in front of the guests continue to discuss their Affairs, come, go, even apologizing.
Negotiations begin with mutual recognition, which are suitable to carry out orally with a simultaneous exchange of business cards among all participants. Business cards of guests will need to put in front of him and make every effort to remember to whom you belong. Need to correctly pronounce the names of the guests. If there are doubts, for example concerning stress, it is necessary to clarify the guests, repeating aloud and then to avoid mistakes.
In order to keep the discussion relaxed, it is necessary to begin with friendly greetings and phrases of a General nature (for example, guests are satisfied with the terms of the stay). Give partners enough time to think about their answers, especially if you find out their opinion.
At the initial stage of negotiations should encourage the partner to present the available information and describe the existing problems. This will allow the next stages of the negotiations to agree on the most suitable conditions for the partner and benefits of the agreement.
Starting negotiations with the most important aspects, try to reach agreement on fundamental issues. You must then move on to discuss issues on which we can agree relatively easily and without spending much time. And only then it is appropriate to focus on those key issues on the agenda of the negotiations requiring detailed discussion.
The person who directs the course of negotiations, you should ask direct questions in a friendly tone, listen to the answers, to correctly interpret them and to test, assess and accurately record all information and to create a positive image of your company.
You need to avoid leading questions. Questions should be asked one at a time, formulating them so that they sounded neutral. You cannot get on someone's one-way, to question the trustworthiness of the partner, to moralize about his political, religious views or behavior.
You need to be careful about what and how they say. It would be illusory to think that in the process of negotiations to outsmart the interviewee only with the help of different tricks and stunts and get him to go for excessive concessions.
During any negotiations it is impossible to do without a patient and deliberate reasoning.
In any case, you cannot use the temporary factor for pressure on negotiating partners, to make their long wait the beginning of the conversation, or "choke" partners unrealistic deadlines that were agreed upon during negotiations. You can not expect that you will achieve some advantages by imitation "misunderstanding," and the extortion of evidence or cheating partners. It must be remembered that the negotiating partner prepared for him as well as you can logically substantiate their statements.
You need to take for granted accurate analysis of the correlation of own interests and interests of the partner, which is especially important when defining the purpose of negotiations, ways and means of achieving it. Therefore it is impossible to start negotiations without details thought out phased plan for them.
During negotiations may experience a temporary tension, discord, disturbance and difficulties. You can't lose your composure, if not everything goes as you would like. Looking for a new way. If you are unable to achieve the planned results of the negotiations, careful to show their emotions. Remembering the Essentials, the things you can give. However, don't settle for partial success, use effective arguments, refrain from making assurances and promises.
The negotiations and their successful completion is largely dependent on the atmosphere in the room, from the manner of the negotiations. If you speak too loudly, then the partner may get the impression that you impose your opinion. Too quiet lethargic it also interferes with the course of negotiations: partner forced to ask counter-questions to make sure that he understands you correctly. Caplio of expression of thoughts can give the impression that you just want to persuade the partner and, conversely, too slow presentation would lead him to the conclusion that you stretch the time.
Another rule that is often neglected. Each firm is so-called 'key persons', i.e. persons who depend on the solution. And it may not be the Director or his Deputy, and the person holding it is not prestigious at first glance the post. However, her opinion in different circumstances (qualification, experience in the industry, personal touch and detailed knowledge of the subject, etc.) is crucial.
Abroad, this practice is well known and companies spend a lot of time and money to identify such people among staff of the partner and try to work primarily on them. If you yourself are such a "key person", remember that the decision is taken by the head, he also holds talks, therefore, join the conversation only after the head will turn to you.
You can never do in the presence of a partner in a verbal argument, no matter what the relationship was between you and the leader. Sometimes time spoken word can change the accents in the conversation and even disrupt the whole thing. In addition, the partner needs to see the representatives of the organization, where there is mutual understanding and respect. Therefore, all questions, which may have differences to settle among themselves in preparation for negotiations.
To control the negotiations you need to be able to ask the necessary questions at the appropriate time. The following types of questions: the opinion of the partner; facts; consent; the question of explanation; the final question-the question-statement.
Question opinion ask the partner if necessary, to determine or clarify the position, the opinion of the partner on a specific issue, situation or question. For example: "what is your opinion about this unit?" "How do you expect to get out of this situation?" etc.
Questions about the facts needs to clarify, or to correct certain information already provided to you by the partner. Question it is desirable to put out of the glare of unwanted attention. In this approach, the likelihood increases that the facts reported by the partner are real. For example: "by the way, how many people work in your enterprise?", "By the way, the performance mechanisms that you produce?".
The issue of consent must be set on the end of a certain stage of negotiations, when the main points of the forthcoming transaction. As an example the issue of consent can be like: "You would like to receive a batch of goods in this range, isn't it?" If you correctly assess the needs of the negotiating partner and managed to convince him of the benefits of the transaction with you, the answer to this question is positive. The value of the answer to the question of consent is not only that it supports the participation of the company in the process of closing, because every advantage corresponds to a confirmation or consent, and that he formed a positive opinion on your suggestions.
It is clear that before the characteristics of another benefits you will not be put before the firm buyer a negative question. For example, after the story about the assortment of wholesale party products, you cannot tell the client: "We think you didn't expect that we will be able to choose a range of products, isn't it?" The answer to this question is "No", and the number of responses tends to form a negative indefinite the position of a buyer on a trade proposal.
In General, should be guided by the rule: negative questions should be used only if there is a need to proceed by hints in the discussion of the benefits and services of its competitors.
Of course, the counterparty may answer "No" and the positive question, if you correctly assessed the needs, problems, or suggestions. However, you can regain control, if you ask the question-explanation. For example, after a positive question: "would You like to receive a batch of goods in this range?" the partner says "No", you must ask the question: "You would not be able to explain why?". The use of question-explanation can positively influence the course of negotiations, because there is additional information that neutralizes the hidden partner's irritation, which might block successful negotiation.
Final question-the view is defined like this: "Well, we have given you all the key benefits of an agreement with the us, what do you think about this?".
Question-the statement should contain a definite commitment on your part, which leads to certain actions of the company. For example: "If we can prove the advantage of the contract with us, are you ready to order?". The answer to this can only be "Yes" in case of doubt the counterparty were real, and not hide behind another obstacle for the conclusion of the agreement. In the latter case, you need to use another form question about hidden obstacles, for example: "Do you have any other reasons?".
All of the responses, the terms proposed contractor is required to clearly record for future analysis and decision on the conclusion of a commercial transaction. At the end of the negotiations need to take stock, to identify those items on which agreement was reached that still require improvement, and those from which the views of partners are completely opposite. Even in case of negative results of talks so the final analytical operation will provide an opportunity to build a bridge for further contacts that might be successful.