Organizational work of the head is impossible without contacts with subordinates and employees of the parent bodies, with representatives of suppliers, partners, commercial transactions, regulatory bodies to individuals — shareholders, employees, cooperative companies and organizations who visit this organization to resolve personal issues. In the course of such contacts are usually implemented in the process of taking the head of the visitors, the latter receives valuable information required for decision-making processes, and most importantly — to improve their progress. In addition, the reception of visitors on personal issues reflects the performance Director of the social role of the organization or company he represents, in respect of the company or its part. In our case the shareholders is a manifestation of the democratic nature of management of consumer co-operation.
When addressing the organization of reception of visitors it is necessary to remember one important rule: the time is not less valuable than the time of an employee of the Executive office. The compliance is facilitated by: a)establishing specific days and hours of reception of visitors of official and personal matters; b) information of the visitors.
Receiving visitors to work you need to install throughout the working week during certain hours, for example after a lunch break. Then head to lunch could tackle current issues, and after the lunch break along with the decision of these questions to receive visitors — representatives of agricultural enterprises, plants, factories and other organizations and institutions that are involved in economic relationships with cooperative organization.
Time to receive visitors on personal matters — shareholders, other citizens and members of the team to better define the days of the week, dividing these responsibilities between the Manager and his deputies. Visitors on personal matters is also better to take in the second half of the day, when the Manager is less busy with operational matters.
Regulation of the time of reception of visitors regulates the work of the head. However, we must remember and adhere to specific rules, which are in consumer cooperatives of shareholders shall head daily and at any time of the day. This is due to the fact that most real estate investors — residents of rural areas and, if necessary, taking the head of the consumer Union consumer Union if they are forced to spend the whole day given the time on the road.
Time to receive visitors, you cannot take the decision of the management issues, meetings, etc. In the case of sudden absence of the Manager must be sure to charge visitors to his first Deputy.
To improve the reception of visitors the important role played by information services to them. If visitors know to whom they should apply, how it spread, what and where, in what form and when they get the answer, and additionally focused what criteria the organization, in solving the question, then, without doubt, the number of visits would decrease substantially, and the statements and other documents would be sent by mail. Information service for visitors is not limited to instructions, from which you can discover where are located the relevant management bodies of the cooperative organizations. Everything related to issues that fall within the competency of a unit, visitors must draw from the ads posted in the hallway without disturbing managers and specialists many questions and not waiting in line to pre-talk to a competent employee. In the work with shareholders is of great importance information about the composition of the rights on management of consumer co-operation, aims and objectives of our system, its organizational structure, etc.
Individual interviews require advance preparation, thinking through her moves, rhythm, determination of future behavior.
In order during a call, it would be possible to achieve the expected result, you need to adhere to certain codeline and psychological requirements. First, it is advisable to try in the beginning of the communication to remove the first voltage from the source, direct it on straight talk. Secondly, you need to give the man a chance to speak. Thirdly, it is necessary to talk to the person in language understandable for him to avoid direct questions. It is also necessary to avoid deviations in the conversation from the mainstream. Finally, to assess the personality only after the end of the conversation, while taking into account their possible biases.
For the effective flow of conversation you need to have the qualities of open-minded person as the ability to communicate, flexibility of behaviour, restraint and tact. Without this it is impossible to count on success. Sociability, rapport are characterized by an attentive attitude to the interlocutor, the ability to follow his every word, facial expression, gesture, the ability to predict his thoughts, feelings. If the interviewee is nervous, shows shyness, you need to remember that the ease of your behavior will affect him / her soothingly.
Dynamism, flexibility of behavior is that you can easily pereklyuchateli from one topic to another, if required by the course of the interview. It is necessary to make a kind of "Arsenal of punches of communication" when the interviewee is relaxed moves on to another topic. You can use another technique, for example, acceptance of contradictory ideas, thoughts, when the thought is expressed, directly opposite to that which was expressed by the interlocutor or even you personally. It makes one both to see a different perspective, which requires either consent or denial. Inertia, the "obsession" on any issue in this case can disappear.
You need to be ready for almost any behavior of the interlocutor, his individual identity, to be very restrained in its reactions to possible breakdowns. With these settings it is easier to maintain the stability of their own behaviour and objectivity of the estimates of the other individual. Along with the ability to restrain themselves, to a certain extent to hide their involuntary assessment, emotional reactions, need to be able to calm the man, using logical arguments or emotional evidence.
The ability to build and sustain until the end of their course of action is necessary in those cases when the interviewee is nervous, shifts from one topic to another. Chaotic following his flow of thoughts and feelings might lead the conversation to a standstill. It is important to return the conversation to the main problem. Often the interviewee correctly understands their difficulties. Charges other interlocutor is always cause for concern. In this case, it is advisable to consider his relationship with others from a position of "to give to others and take from others" to find out whether the person on the consumerist and egoistic positions in relation to other people.
To objectively analyze personal and professional situations, the conversation should build on the principle of partnership. It largely depends on the ability to identify with those with whom you communicate, to understand him. Of course, imbued with all the personal problems it is impossible. However, to trace the key moments of the occurrence of specific difficulties in relationships with others, to put yourself in the shoes of the interlocutor is possible and necessary. You can collaborate with them to develop solutions to complex situations. For this we need to know the basic rules of conduct.
Tact is that you cannot touch the intimate life of the interlocutor. Ethically it is only in the case when he reports such data myself. Also, you need explicitly or imperceptibly, to convince the interlocutor in the secrecy of the conversation.
The essential point for a successful conversation are a delicacy to it. The delicacy is first of all due respect, the recognition of the rights of another person to freedom of thoughts, feelings, and behavior. People greatly differ in the degree of disclosure of their thoughts and feelings. And if you feel that excessive candor can damage the source, you need to gently stop him. Particular sensitivity should be exercised in conversation with members of the opposite sex. of course, you should always remember the rule of voluntariness of contact.
For them, it is also important emotional (estimated) restraint and tolerance (the ability to listen, understand, reassure). Therefore, it is recommended to avoid neurotic and other subjective deviations in their own assessments and behavior on the background of tolerance to possible neurotic reactions, evaluations of the interlocutor.
In order for the conversation to reach its goal, you must be able to listen to the other person.
The listening skills is paramount in communication. Statistics calculated from the time that use to contact with others at work and at home, we are 9% writing, 16 —read, 30 —say 45'%— listening.
To understand the source, we must first understand its purpose. It should be remembered that in the process of communication, people tend to switch from one target to another or committed to multiple. In some cases, the source wants to pay their respects and to maintain relationships (social goal), others trying to get information that interests him (information the purpose). The decision problem situation or resolve the conflict defines the commitment of both partners to reach mutual understanding, despite the urgent need to give vent to your feelings (expressive goal). Finally, it may be that the participant communication puts forward some requirements, submit a complaint or a request, trying to force you to not only carefully listen to him, but also to meet (incentive target).
In the first case, to hear is to participate V adopted the ritual of everyday communication. Social interaction implies that the two sides speak or listen at a time, not interrupting each other.
To listen properly, when the purpose of the conversation is the exchange of information, means to accurately perceive the speech of the interlocutor, to understand the content and remember. When obtaining complex information appropriate of the highlights to do short notes. Useful techniques of "active or reflective hearing: paraphrasing, clarifying and summarizing.
When expressive communication appropriate methods of non - reflective listening, or the ability to be silent, not to intervene in the speech of the interlocutor. After all, he is emotional, excited and has difficulty forming his thoughts. You must also Express your understanding and approval of his behavior.
When the goal of communication is the regulation of the conflict, is indispensable methods of consultation based on empathy or understanding the feelings of another person.
It is important to give the other person understand that you share his feelings.
However, whatever the purpose of communication, one must know the techniques of effective listening and relaxed to be able to use them. To do this, first you need to exercise some introspection, identify your habits of listening, strengths and weaknesses and the nature of the mistakes made during personal communication. It should answer yourself a number of questions. Not too fast you take out judgment about people? Often interrupt the interlocutor? What are the obstacles in communication typical for your answers? Some of them are repeated most often? After analyzing therefore their habits, can further improve them.
The ability to listen is in compliance with certain rules. The first rule sounds like this: responsibility for mutual conversation, because interlocutors play the role of listener in turn. Asking follow-up questions, showing active emotions, you must make it clear to the person that listen attentively to him.
The second rule: be attentive and focused during conversation. Attention to the interlocutor is primarily manifested in visual contact with him. While looking at the interlocutor without namedlist or gaze, which is sometimes perceived as hostility. Posture and gestures should indicate that you are listening to it. DURING the conversation we also need to focus on what the interlocutor speaks. It requires conscious effort, because close attention is short (less than one minute). Try to minimize situational interference (TV, telephone). Avoid "wandering" thoughts.
The third rule: you need to understand not only the meaning of the words, but the subtext of the conversation and the feelings of the interlocutor. You need to be observant, to be able to "read" nonverbal (nonverbal) signals of the person with whom you are talking to. These signals, which is manifested in facial expression, posture, gestures of the man show her emotions to confirm or deny what the person is saying. Recall also that the need to extinguish your emotions, especially negative ones. Your positive reaction Codo person who expresses their thoughts, helps to accurately Express them. Negative reaction on your part will cause the person with whom you are communicating, sense of insecurity, and wariness.
If in a conversation lull, don't take the silence of the interlocutor for the manifestation of attention — people can just delve into their thoughts. In turn, it is impossible to cover the hearing as a refuge. Passive, insecure people use it as an opportunity to avoid communication and expression. They not only talk, but not listen.
Talking with another person, you cannot pretend that you are listening to. The lack of interest and snejanna inevitably manifests itself in facial expression and gestures. It is better to recognize that in this moment to listen to the visitor closely enough, you can not, having referred to employment.
Sometimes the source reports information that is not the topic of conversation. However, in this case, some time don't need to beat it. Sometimes this is done unconsciously, and noticed that executives often kill subordinates than Vice versa. If to clarify things, it is still necessary to interrupt, help him resume the interrupted train of thought.
Participating in the dialogue, don't let to draw himself into an argument. When we mentally agree with someone, you usually stop listening and wait for their turn to speak. And if you start a fight, so addicted to the justification of his point of view that sometimes cannot hear the partner. Need to listen it to the end to understand what is impossible to accept, and after that you can Express their understanding of the problem.
During a conversation with another person you need to be able to ask her questions. Thus they should not be too much. Can you clarify what is said, but "closed" questions requiring the answer "Yes" or "no", you need to minimize. An excessive amount of issues suppress the interlocutor, the initiative that can drive the conversation.
Often the purpose of handling the person you have the desire to make something real or change your opinion or force to do anything. In this case, specify what he wants is actually the person that you asked. Do not give advice if you don't provati, and if encouraged to do something, the best response to the other person — your specific action.
Some features have a reception on personal matters of employees of co-operative organizations (enterprises). All employees should be familiar with the location and hours of reception on personal issues. It is desirable that they informed the Secretary about the next visit and its purpose, as without this it is difficult to establish the number of possible visitors and to prepare for the reception.
The reception staff on personal matters characterized by the following features:
the initiative belongs, as a rule, the visitor and, accordingly, the subject and the subject is determined;
the issues that are the topic of conversation may have a personal nature (for example, wages, housing conditions, difficulties associated with training, changing jobs), or touch labor protection, culture, shopping processes, etc.;
the interest of the visitor in the decision of a question can lead to emotional stress situation and you need to be ready for that;
the lack of sufficiently complete and objective information about significant points of the subject does not always give the opportunity to the head (contrary to the expectations of the employee) to make a final or a fast enough solution.
Before the arrival of the visitor the Manager must be familiar with the essence of his case, to involve specialists (e.g., in case of consideration of legal issues, for the clarification of which requires special knowledge).
In preparation for the interview need to consider the main issues that require clarification. The list of these issues should not be large, since some of the answers can determine the need for emergency callouts.
To meet it is also desirable to obtain preliminary information about the man, to consider how to use this information. Preparing for the conversation, you need to think about how to establish mutual trust.
The next stage in the process of interview preparation is planning time for the upcoming meeting (familiarization with the necessary information to the conversation, pondering, and decision-making).
Next, you need to consider, in what conditions there will be a talk (at the premises of the Department in the office of the head, etc.). It is necessary to ensure: confidentiality as an essential condition in order that people could speak freely and openly; all factors that can distract from the interview (phone calls, the appearance of unauthorized persons, etc.); the most comfortable for the human condition (excellent location, friendly, polite).
One of the important forms of communications of the employee with the head conversations are with him on the initiative of the head. The need for them arises almost daily in the process of executing the head of their functions, and the reasons for this are extremely varied and can affect virtually all aspects of cooperative organizations. When you call a subordinate to interview the Manager must comply with the rules is extremely important; tell the person cause, the cause, what was the reason for the call. This will allow the subordinate to prepare for the conversation. If the reason you are calling slave are not known in advance, then waiting for the reception, he speculated, will not be prepared for the conversation that will eventually reduce the effectiveness of the conversation with the Manager.