Marketing activities in the trade of consumer cooperation
Marketing (from eng. market — the market) is the business activity of the organization (enterprise), market-oriented. It represents the activity related to the promotion of goods and services to the market based on the extracted information about the market, customer demand, the presence of competitors, etc. Marketing combines analysis, planning and control over the activities of the organization aimed at retaining existing and winning potential markets.
Objectives of marketing is to satisfy the demand of buyers in the market and achieve the goals of the organization. The modern concept of marketing is that based on the definition of the needs and assessments of real buyers of the product range and quality of goods (services) to adapt the production and sales of those needs and assessment better than do competitors. In other words, all business decisions in a specific organization should be made through the prism of the interests of buyers of its product.
Marketing activities of the organization is built, based on the target orientation and complexity of events. In its activity it is guided by two aspects: its own performance and the external environment. On the one hand, the organization has a set of tools that can influence the market in the desired direction, and with another — in its activities the organization should consider the environment, i.e. factors that are not directly associated with the organization, but the modification of which significantly affects its commercial results.
Secondly, the introduction of consumer cooperation with the leading sector of its economy trade.
The organisation is influenced by two groups of factors: controlled and uncontrolled. Controlled factors consist of activities of the organization based on its economic, production and financial capabilities, and activities, certain marketing service.
To the first sub-activity will include the definition of common objectives of the organization and role of marketing in it. As General tasks, the leadership of the organization must approve the product range activities, that is, the types of goods and services, the territorial boundaries of the organization, sales, profit etc. this includes the formation of the common tasks of marketing services.
The second subspecies is the actual activity of marketing service, which covers the following areas:
the study of the environment and the development of a package of measures, which weaken its negative impact;
a comprehensive study of the market, customer behavior, the degree of saturation with goods, the position of competitors;
the formation of a differentiated product portfolio that best meet the needs of consumers;
the estimation of own opportunities of the organization and its scientific-technical and production potential of the image service system;
formulation of marketing objectives for the near future and distant future;
bringing goods to consumers and greater control over their implementation;
development of methods of active influence on consumer demand by boosting demand, stimulating the implementation, the organization of after-sales service.
According to these objectives, marketing develops strategies and tactics. Marketing strategy is to align the capabilities of the organization in accordance with the specific situation on the market. Tactics involves the development of a fit organisation to market conditions.
To uncontrolled organization factors include suppliers, customer behavior, impact of competition, governmental decisions, the public, economic conditions, technological progress and new management techniques, the media (press, television, radio).
To completely eliminate the influence of both the first and the second groups of factors on the organization is impossible. However, to mitigate their impact, and some can even be eliminated provided the availability of reliable marketing information.
In the marketing activities of consumer cooperation organizations ' leading role should be a market research. Market research is a way of obtaining information about demand is necessary for making effective management decisions. Market research the marketer is primarily interested in such issues as consumer behavior (attitude toward the product, purchase motives, purchase options, etc.), determination of market capacity; market research sale of goods and forecasting; a study of the practice activities of competing organizations and systems.
To study the demand for goods should start from the generally accepted classification of them. they are divided primarily on consumption and investment, that is, the objects of personal consumption and industrial purposes.
In turn, the private goods are divided into three main groups:
products for short-term use. These include food, cosmetics, detergents etc. These goods have a short life cycle, then buy them again in the previous number;
the long-term use goods. Cars, clothes, fridges, TVs etc. These products rarely buy;
services, that is the product of labor, which becomes a useful effect or pleasure that is the object of the sale. These are transport and domestic services, service, services, repair and maintenance, Advisory services.
Consumer goods can also be classified as follows:
consumer goods, i.e. goods that the consumer buys frequently and with minimal effort in the search and choice (tobacco, drinks, soap, etc.);
products careful selection. The consumer is in the process of choosing and buying meticulously compares them with similar on the basis of their compliance needs, price, quality, appearance (clothes, shoes, furniture, appliances, etc.);
prestige goods (luxury goods). They have a unique quality associated with the brand or company. To purchase them the buyer is willing to bear the higher financial costs (goods fashion, high quality and photographic equipment, electronics, jewelry, etc.).
Investment goods divided into the following categories: major equipment, auxiliary equipment, components and assemblies, basic and auxiliary materials, raw materials.
Each classification group of items is specific marketing.
For a successful market activities the organization must perform the number of potential buyers and their needs. For this looking for answers about such questions:
who is willing to buy the proposed product or
why the consumer will buy our product or service? the product type and kind wishes to the consumer?
when the consumer is ready to buy our product? where he will buy our goods? he will buy our goods?
Thus defining the range of consumers, one can analyze the market capacity.
Market capacity is determined by the volume of sold products for a certain period of time. To measure the capacity of the market use both physical and money units. The capacity of the market characterizes the potential demand for a product or set of products or market demand.
Market demand is reflected in the high number of products, which buys a certain group of customers in a certain region for a certain period of time and in the presence of marketing activities. Market demand is measured by natural indicators in prices and in relative (percentage) terms.
Study the market, its forecasting and the use of these results in practical activities provides the organization with additional revenue. This allows it to sell or to buy goods at the most affordable prices, to efficiently maneuver their own resources, to optimize their business.
The next step of marketing analysis is to explore the possibilities of the organization to meet the market parameters defined in the process of his research.
The potential of the organization for the development of the market consists of such parts:
Material and technical base. For trading activities, the organization must have some retail and warehouse space, equipment and facilities. In the course of marketing research is evaluation of available material-technical base, development of proposals for rationalization and extension of the lease, purchase, etc.;
Labour resources. The implementation of the goods carried out by people. Productivity is limited time and the physiological capabilities of workers. So, when the available labor capacity are insufficient to implement the entire scope of work in the market, develop proposals to increase the number of employees and improve their qualification level;
Commodity software market needs. Marketing research should define the sources to cover the demand of the customers: the existing inventories of the organization, the flow of goods from suppliers, the own production of goods. In the case when the available inventory will not allow covering the demand of the customers, the organization can bring to market other organizations on the basis of mutually beneficial conditions of cooperation.
Thus, as can be seen from the content of the marketing analysis of the organization, it seamlessly goes to the next step—marketing product planning organization.
Product organization is a product (thing), service or idea. Therefore, the concept of "product organization" has a broad meaning. It is not only a specific product provided by the organization for sale, and all supporting elements, i.e. what is the image of the product and service. For example, the purchase by the buyer of a refrigerator is accompanied with the necessary technical recommendations, warranties, service as a process and its operation.
Product cooperative organizations engaged in commercial activities, includes the following elements:
The range, that is, the variety of goods. The assortment consists of product groups, each of which consists of certain commodity positions, which in turn consist of individual goods. Each product is characterized by a certain set of consumer qualities and a certain level of quality;
Packing. The sale of goods used in the factory, the packaging materials and packaging trade organization. Factory packaging is designed to protect the product in the way it moves from producer to consumer from damage during transportation and warehouse operations. However, the packaging features and information load. Package design and information on this are often the reason for the consumer's choice of a particular product. Packaging trade organization also performs these two above mentioned functions. The trade organization should pay special attention to the informational value of the packaging. "Branded" packaging, that is, the individual •its design, which contains the brand name and the name of the trade organization, creates a clear image of a trademark organization of the buyer and is often a factor of the benefits of this organization to others;
Service. The trading service provides a range of services that are provided to customers. Among these services include trade credit, delivery of goods to customers, the establishment of hours of operation of enterprises, is beneficial for the population, consideration of customer complaints and consideration of them in the practical work of trade enterprises. Major foreign trade organizations also provide services on maintenance of technically inventory items during their operation. This advice on the installation and launching of such items, preventive work and replace worn out parts, planned maintenance work, major repairs, spare parts supply, consulting on the most effective use of equipment, user training. Quality service forms a circle of regular customers.
In the composition of marketing activities plays a big role advertising. Through advertising, the organization conveys information that convinces the buyer to the advisability of purchase.
To advertising has become an effective integral part of the marketing activity, it must meet the following requirements:
the information that is supplied is must be new for buyers;
the need to use relatively new products being introduced on the market and sales growth;
advertising should emphasize such features of the goods which the consumer usually doesn't notice and which distinguish this product from its other counterparts;
should intensive use of advertising in the period of General economic recovery of the country.
Marketing activity of industrial enterprise (organization) also includes managing promotion of products on the market, prices and costs. Specifics of trading activities requires consideration of these aspects as a part of production management.
If you put the question about the organization of marketing service in a trading firm economically developed country, it will cause confusion. The fact that in these countries, marketing activities are undertaken by producers of commodities, which create their own marketing services, conduct marketing research, plan and execute marketing activities throughout the chain "producer— wholesale — retail — buyer."
In our conditions, production enterprises do not yet feel the need to marketing activities on the market. Therefore, to achieve its goals, the organizations of consumer cooperation should create their own marketing services.
The creation of a special marketing service is advisable at the level of the consumer Union. First, rural administrative district is a separate regional market. Second, the Union carries out wholesale and retail trade and has an objective interest in the promotion of products on the market as wholesale buyers (consumer societies) and retail through own retail enterprises. Thirdly, the marketing service of consumer Union could perform marketing research and develop strategy and marketing tactics for the merged Paradise - Sporovsky consumer societies, which are not profitable or not able to create their own marketing service.
Marketing service of the unions of consumer societies can be organized on the basis of their existing sales departments. Of course, need a corresponding re-training of employees of sales departments, because until recently their work was mainly in the distribution between consumer societies money market funds of goods and control of development of them. Now, in terms of commodity hunger, the employees of the sales Department deals with search goods, barter, etc.
When the stabilization of the economic situation the efficiency of this Department and the organization as a whole will depend on the skills of relevant professionals to promote goods and services to the market in accordance with customer demand.
In the practice of marketing activities of foreign firms are four main types of internal organization of marketing service: functional, product,
Functional organization is built on the fact that the Vice-President of the company, which is responsible for marketing activities, are subject to control individual functions: advertising, sales, marketing research, customer service, market planning, etc.
Commodity organization. The internal structure of the marketing service by commercial organizations built on the features of commodities (commodity groups). Such organization of marketing service does not replace the functional organization, and is its complement.
The market organization. In this type of organization along with the functional managers are the managers on work with the markets (market of individual consumers, wholesale buyers, etc.). Subordinate to the experts responsible for these markets.
Commodity-market organization is a combination of commodity and market organization.
For consumer cooperatives, the most acceptable is a trade organization of marketing service. First, it is consistent with the existing structure of trade departments, in which individual specialists are responsible for certain groups of goods (food and non-food products, among them clothes, shoes, goods of cultural-household purpose and economic use, etc.). Within the marketing service will use the existing professional knowledge of the goods from the relevant professionals. Second, it enables to increase the responsibility of experts at all stages of the movement of goods from purchase of goods prior to their implementation.
Commodity organization gives you the opportunity to focus on planning the search process and the process of implementation of specific goods (goods of a particular group). The role of the specialist responsible for the product, is to develop a plan and strategy for the procurement and sale of goods, monitor their implementation, monitor results and make necessary adjustments.
This function involves the following tasks:
the development of long-term marketing plan of a certain product;
preparation of annual marketing plans and sales projections;
stimulating the interest of the sales staff to increase sales of the product;
collecting information on consumer attitudes and retail workers to the product;
search the best suppliers of goods and transactions with them.
The shortage of goods, inflation, a sharp slowdown in the economy specialist, responsible for the goods becomes a critical figure in the management system of regional consumer Union.
Together with these specialists in the Department of marketing consumer Union should also include advertising specialist and a specialist responsible for marketing research.
The General management of this division should be made by the Deputy Chairman of the Board of the Union on trade and marketing.
In the higher levels of consumer cooperative societies also advisable to create your marketing service, which will serve as the company's own subordination and to provide marketing services, assistance and advice to lower levels.