Human resources management
Workforce management includes the following components:
1. Workforce planning organization.
2. The formation personnel to create a cadre of workers.
3. The selection of personnel for employment contracts.
4. Vocational guidance and adaptation.
5. Organization of remuneration.
6. Employee training, including leadership training.
7. Evaluation of work of employees and managing their promotion.
Workforce planning encompasses three consecutive stages: assessment of available resources, the assessment of future personnel needs, developing programs to meet future demand in people.
In evaluating the available resources examined the existing human potential, that is, analyzes the total number of employees in the organization, for separate parts and separate operations on matching staffing to the goals and objectives of the organization. However, to assess the quality of workers and revealed a surplus or shortage of workers in structural divisions and the whole organization.
The next step — prediction (estimate) of the number of personnel required for future development of the organization. This assessment of the future needs of people made based on projected amount of work for each structural unit of the organization as production and commercial and non-industrial complexity of individual operations and activities and their degree of mechanization. Identifying your future needs in people, the management is developing a program to meet their. The program should include a specific timetable and measures for attracting, hiring and promotion of employees required to achieve the goals of the organization.
The recruitment is to create the necessary pool of candidates for all positions and specialties, among which the organization selects the most suitable employees. This work should be done in all areas — operational, clerical, technical, administrative. The necessary amount of work of recruitment is determined by the difference between the cash workforce and future needs. While taking into account such factors as retirement, fluidity, dismissals in connection with industrial needs or expiration of the tenancy.
Recruitment is carried out both through internal and external sources.
By means of external recruitment include advertisement in Newspapers and magazines, access to the employment services, colleges and universities.
Internal recruitment is carried out to employees within the organization about job vacancies and requirements to applicants.
The selection of personnel. At this stage, management staff the user selects the most suitable candidates from a reserve created during a set. It is necessary to choose the person with the best qualifications to perform actual work in a specific position, not the candidate best suited for the promotion. In the selection of a candidate takes into account his education, professional skills, experience, personal qualities. In the process of recruitment using the following methods: testing, testing, modeling, interviews. In fact, the selection of frames in content is associated with the establishment of professional competence of the employee.
Questions of suitability are closely related and the issues of placement, we are talking about a certain experience and ability, individual style, which in some cases will allow you to quickly learn and accurately perform it, and others will be unnecessary, and even harmful.
Placement of personnel in cooperative organization or business cannot be reduced only to the filling of vacancies. It should be based on the requirements of each specialty, taking into account individual psychological and personal qualities of the employee. Special content and the socio-economic value of placement becomes in terms of shortage of manpower when manpower saving as important as saving energy, raw materials. Place shots effectively means to increase productivity, to lower cost growth in sales of goods, improve the quality of the work.
Selection and placement is an important function of a Manager that covers the following range of issues: choosing a career path; the formation of personality on the basis of the properties and qualities necessary for the execution of activities; the choice of methods and means of studying of abilities of the employee; establish the suitability of the individual; identifying and addressing the characteristics of the group; the study of the first results of work.
Thus it is possible to get an impression about the person as a whole person. Orientation to a holistic personality when selecting frames and allows you to better represent the behavior of the candidate in connection with changes in the business situation.
In the selection and placement of great importance is the question of methods and means of studying of abilities of the employee that give the opportunity to make it right. The most effective methods include the following: the study of life's journey; the team that employs people; the reviews of the entourage of the candidate; creating a situation suitable for the manifestation of professionally important qualities and properties; the study of the statements of the individual about his own role in a particular process.
For rational placement identity must be studied not only on the questionnaire or autobiography, but primarily in the process of direct communication during business meetings, joint work. Of course, the questionnaire, the autobiography gives some information about the person, but this stuff leaves a lot of unanswered questions. Therefore, the study of the life path it is desirable to observe the problem method, which is that studied a certain life period or life situation that gives the opportunity to enter the appropriate attributes and personality traits. You can examine the identity formulation of the problem, alternative question, which she already had to deal with in a particular period of life. This method is especially effective to identify the dynamics of values and behavior.
Studying the opinion of the team, which is working people, you can complement the look of the most valuable characteristics indicating the manifestation of the qualities and properties in everyday settings, when a person is not really in control of his actions and deeds. In addition, the collective activity of personality is multifaceted, which gives the opportunity to reveal her most significant, which is manifested in all aspects of her life. Finally, the collective opinion is, as a rule, the opinion weighed objectively.
The study of the closest environment (friends, partners, families) gives the opportunity to see the personality as reflected in others. Of course, friends can be different education, interests, so it is necessary to take into account that long-lasting mutual attraction, sympathy, active cooperation is possible only on the basis of identical values that form the belief features.
The creation of human situations that require you to demonstrate your personal qualities, usually associated with a test of independence, ingenuity, toughness, impact on other people, the ability to mobilize themselves for the struggle with difficulties. This is best done in a typical working environment, the use of orders in which the worker did not have time to get used to.
Evidence for the formation of opinions about personality is her view of themselves and especially about their place in the collective labor. Exaggeration of one's own role, the silence of the significance of achievements, as a rule, indicate the qualities that prevent the organization of joint work, leading to the rupture of business relations in the team.
Under the professional competence means a set of knowledge, skills, and personal qualities, and qualities necessary for a person to successfully perform certain duties. In this regard, there are potential and actual suitability. Potential suitability is indicated, for example, a person in reserve for the nomination, which involves some training.
Real professional predates.formed after mastering the knowledge, skills and abilities, the acquisition of personal qualities necessary for the higher official position.
In the work on selection and placement of personnel must always bear in mind that every group has certain characteristics, such as tradition, established for the certain period of work, social values, attitudes, motives, from which depends not only the adaptation of the employee, but also the functioning of the whole team.
Vocational guidance and adaptation. To improve productivity, the next step is the professional orientation of employees and their adaptation to the team. Professional orientation is the best use of existing employee skills, experience and views regarding the conditions of the organization. Adaptation is the attention to employee on the first steps of its work in the organization, cautions him from doing things that are considered negative in terms of the culture of the organization in the direction of the desired path.
Organization of payment of labour is the development and use of forms and systems of remuneration to attract, hire and maintain staff capacity.
Remuneration consists of salary, bonuses and benefits.
Wage paid to the employee for performing work of medium complexity and can be time-based or piece-rate.
Bonuses are paid to employees for quantitative or qualitative targets exceeded the average complexity and intensity of labor.
The sources of remuneration include benefits associated with the position or nature of work: compensation of expenses of the employee for food or for the maintenance of children in institutions, the provision of free legal services, partial payment of training of children in educational institutions, Wellness programs, etc. Therefore, the Manager must determine the set of constituent elements of remuneration for each employee based on his qualifications and characteristics of the operations, the work that he performs in the workplace.
Training. The organization needs to care about improving the quality of their human resources. It is not enough recruitment and selection of the most qualified and capable employees. Management should also undertake a systematic programme of education and training of workers, helping them fulfill their possibilities in the organization. The ultimate goal of training is to provide your organization with a sufficient number of people with skills and abilities necessary to achieve organizational objectives, increase productivity.
Special attention should be given to training of managerial personnel. In practice, a systematic program is most often used to prepare managers for promotion.
In order for training was not fruitless, the organization must first assess the ability of their managers. Then based on the analysis of the content of the manual should identify the abilities and skills required to perform duties on all line and functional positions in the organization. This gives you the opportunity to identify who among the leaders has the appropriate skills to work on a particular job, and who needs training and retraining. Then develop a program and schedule for the preparation of specific individuals for possible promotion or transfer to other positions.
Leadership training is carried out by the organization of lectures, discussions in small groups, analysis of specific business situations, studying the literature, conducting business games and role training.
Variants of these methods are annual courses and seminars on governance. Effective method is rotation. Moving the head of the grass-roots level from Department to Department for a period of 3 months to one year, the organization acquaints the new head with all aspects of the activity. When this young Manager has the opportunity to identify a variety of problems in different departments, to understand the need of coordination, informal watches are clearly the links between the objectives of various units. Such knowledge is indispensable for successful work in higher positions, but is especially useful for managers of lower level management hierarchy.
Evaluation of work of employees and managing their promotion. The appraisal requires that managers have information about how effectively each employee performs its functions. With this information, the Manager can determine the best employees and really raise the level of their achievements, translating into higher positions. Evaluation of work includes three functions: administrative (promotion, demotion, transfer, dismissal); information (identification of achievements and failures in the work of the employee); motivational (best should consequently be stimulated). Managing promotion or career management is applied by many foreign companies as the official program, which helps employees to develop their abilities and apply them best. Program promotion helps organizations use the skills of their employees, and the employees gives the opportunity to better apply their skills. In this program, people perceive their work in the organization as the number of displacements for various posts contributing to the development of the organization and the individual. The result of these programs, a greater commitment to the interests of the organization, motivation, and productivity, reducing staff turnover.