Managing supply goods and inventory
Under the management of the supply goods understand the system of managerial influence on the processes of formation of orders for goods, development and conclusion of agreements with suppliers, physical movement of goods from suppliers to the trading companies and formation of inventories and management. All decisions on management of the supply goods, require strong coordination. However, the consumer cooperation organizations such coordination is not always carried out through the separation of individual components of the system of transportation logistics between the various management units. So, specialists who are responsible for the transport of goods, try to minimize the costs of transportation and, therefore, to ship the goods in large quantities, and as infrequently as possible. The heads of trade companies seek to increase the level of customer service, and therefore tend to accumulate large stocks of goods and require a faster delivery them. Specialists responsible for warehousing, strive to minimize the cost of storing the goods and prefer to minimize inventory. The result is a lack of optimization of the entire system of eurosapienza.
Importance of tvaronaviciene and inventory can be illustrated by the following example. Studies show that the annual amount of purchases of commercial enterprise is approximately 50 % of its turnover. The reduction in orders only 2'% by intelligent inventory management will provide savings equal to 1 % of turnover. This is the sum of the same magnitude as the distributed profit which savings can theoretically be doubled. The amount invested in inventories, often up to 20% of commodity turnover, and sometimes reach 1000 and/b If the company reaches this value ZO %, the decline in inventory levels, due to their rational use, will free up funds that comprise 10% of the turnover, and will reduce costs by 1% For turnover.
By providing the necessary for the smooth trade inventory, the problem arises of assessing the effectiveness of expenditure incurred, that is, the search criterion for the assessment of quality management of the supply goods.
Among several criteria of this kind is most appropriate criterion proposed by P. Zermat.
Efficiency trade organization in General, depends on the applied system of management of the available inventory.
Inventory is the availability of products prior to their implementation. The purpose of the reserves — the education of a buffer between successive deliveries of goods and eliminate the need of continuous supply. Manage supplies means to meet customers ' requirements on essential goods.
There are several systems of regulation of stocks depending on the initial parameters, which are regulated by the commodity reserves. Most often these parameters are the size of orders, replenishment, frequency of ordering, support inventory levels, variability of stocks, etc.
System with a fixed size of the order. In such a system the size of the order for replenishment is constant and regular supply of goods is carried out by reducing cash reserves to a certain critical level (points of order). In the operation of the system is replenished each time the same value, but the intervals of replenishment of t may be different depending on cost of stock. The typical process in the system with a fixed size of the order. System with a fixed size of the order has two governing parameters: the reorder level (a fixed level of inventory at which can arrange the delivery of another batch of the goods) and order size (value of lot), which is stable.
The maximum size of the stock varies depending on how the reserves are spent in period between filing of the order and receipt of the next batch delivery.
System with a fixed size of the order requires a