Management of material and technical base of cooperative trade
Under the material-technical base of trade, understand the totality of all tools used in the sales process. The composition of the material-technical base of trade includes buildings, constructions, transfer devices, machines, hardware, farm implements and other objects used as means of labor.
_ Based on the composition of the material-technical base of trade, a range of issues that are solved in the process of management, includes: placing the trade network, the choice of specific construction sites, the definition of power trading companies, and architectural design solutions stores, technical equipment, effective use of retail space and equipment.
Earlier policy of consumer cooperation in material-technical base of retail trade, more precisely, the main part of buildings and structures, dictated by party-state authorities, on the basis that when determining the prospects of development of trade all settlements of rural administrative district was divided into the regional centers, local centers of gravity of the rural population settlements promising and unpromising settlements.
According to this separation of rural settlements has adopted the following principles for the development of material-technical base of cooperative trade. In districts built large commercial enterprises of a universal character (coopener, loopgetrange), as well as specialty stores on the implementation of separate groups of goods (knitwear, haberdashery, shoes, sporting goods). Trade the bulk of the goods of difficult assortment concentrated in the universal and specialized trade enterprises of the district center.
In local centres and promising settlements develop the network of Department stores with non-food assortment of goods, and stores selling everyday products. Finally, in the so-called "unpromising" settlements stationary enterprises were liquidated. For a transitional period pending their complete elimination of the population of these villages and hamlets were served with benches and shops.
Thus, the villagers were forced for purchases of goods of difficult assortment to travel to district centers, and by purchasing them, to decide the question of their delivery home. As a result, the merchandise trade complex range in the districts was extremely beneficial for consumer cooperatives, primarily due to reductions in transport costs and the shifting of their rural. residents. Consumer societies were encouraged to cluster human paragraphs - to organize the delivery of goods of difficult assortment orders. However, this practice was not widely spread because of the unwillingness of employees of retail trade enterprises cluster centers to collect orders, and for psychological reasons — buying a product of a complex range of products, mostly durables, the buyer prefers the choice of such goods, but does not charge it to someone.
As a result, the development of material-technical base of trade in the village there are significant deviations that need to be addressed for effective functioning in the period of transition to market relations, so in the future.
Consider the set of management operations, material and technical base of retail cooperative trade as an integral part of management trading and business activities. Consideration of these issues will build on the example of consumer Union, since within a rural administrative district clearly identifies the main factors influencing this aspect of consumer cooperatives, and the total effect can be obtained, provided the coordinated activity of several consumer societies, and not within one of them.
Placing the trade network. The basic principle of placing a trading network needs to be: the location of the retailers is determined by the location of consumers, not producers, databases, etc. Proper placement of trade enterprises is a necessary complement to market strategy sales organization. Before to solve the issue of opening (construction) or reconstruction company, you need to analyze the settlement or area, its history and dynamics, the particularities of the local market and trends of its changes. The General scheme of the sequence of analysis can be represented in this way: the economic activity of the population of the district is considered to— market opportunities— selecting of accommodation businesses (land development, specific building, shopping center or enterprise for reconstruction).
In other words, this scheme shows that the nature and scope of economic activity determine the size and characteristics of the population, its social composition, purchasing power, particularly of skills, consumer habits, and even culture. The classification of these analytical indicators in the context of settlements allows you to select among them the following types:
1. The regional centers.
2. Cities and towns of district and regional subordination in the district.
3. Local centers of economic, cultural, administrative centers and transport links.
4. Ordinary village.
This classification takes into account the economic and social characteristics of the settlement. From features of the settlement depend on the value of retail trade network, its structure, types and flow of stores, a specific range of goods.
Each locality is a local market with certain capacity and features, which may be based only a certain retail chain with a certain turnover. In other words, each company has its own service area.
Studies have shown that there are a number of patterns, which determine specific features of the area merchant services.
1. A certain product is characterized by a certain distance and a certain maximum time that consumers are willing to spend to purchase it.
2. Consumers usually tend to buy a product, use the service at your nearest place where you can buy a product or receive a service.
3. Consumers prefer buying everything in one place, during one visit to the store.
4. The distance which consumers are willing to overcome to the store in search of rare goods, the occasional demand, is not very different from that which seems to them adopted while purchasing goods of daily demand.
5. The opinion of consumers about the surrounding retailers, about their alternative choices significantly affect the configuration and selection of areas of shopping services.
Based on these patterns, it is possible to give a definition of area merchant services. Area vending services is the territory (it is also called "surface demand", "demand field"), where potential consumers of certain goods (goods) or service (s) to a specific retail trading system.
Therefore, planning and optimization of retail trade enterprises in the district, you need to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the areas shopping facilities, both real and potential. In the analysis of the characteristics of the trade area servicing a specific retail commercial enterprise is first necessary to outline its boundaries.
Consider this example. In the area next door has two settlements — local centre with a population of 2,700 people. and village with a population of 750 people.
The distance between them is 9 km from the local centre located the village Council and the Board of the local Union farms. Where will be the boundary between zones of trading service these settlements?
To assess areas of trading service also used the so-called "gravity model". These models are called so in connection with the similarity laws that are observed in the interaction of two different systems and the law of gravity.
The complexity of laws can be formulated in the following way. Under normal conditions two large settlements attract buyers with a lower point located between them in the relation directly proportional to a degree of population of these great points and inversely proportional to a certain power of the distance between each of the larger settlements and a lower intermediate point.
Any area of the shopping service may provide a profitable operation, only a limited number of stores. Therefore, to make a decision on the development of the retail network only when forecast income from the investment of funds in the development of enterprises in this area will show that he is above the average prevailing in the whole area.
After the decision about the construction, opening, renovation store, you need to specifically decide where to spend it. The main criterion for decision-making should be a maximum of convenience in use by the enterprise. The store should be located fairly close to the place of residence of the buyers, readily accessible, grouped with others so that the buyer spent on the purchase of goods a minimum of time and effort.
It is clear that you have previously analyzed the potential service area.
It is also necessary to study the characteristics of the site selected for development: the presence of engineering structures and communications, transport communications, environmental situation. The presence or absence of some of these settings, reduce or increase the cost of construction or reconstruction of enterprises.
Architectural-design solution of the store is to pick a project that would be in the nature rosrio-Commerce transactions under the commodity profile of the enterprise and scope of activities. In matters of design businesses need to remember that customers prefer to shop where a pleasant atmosphere is brightly lit, tastefully decorated salesroom, where a good, cheerful mood, benevolence reigns, and not the store type warehouse, dark colors, with unsightly shelves and counters.
Next you need to consider the security of enterprise trade and technological equipment. The choice of type and capacity depends on the product profile of the store, volume of trade, economy and efficiency. At the same time use as money and physical performance. To value the utilization of trade-technological equipment include capital productivity, fondamenti, ratio and payback period of the funds invested in the equipment and in the whole material-technical base of the commercial enterprise. However, it should be remembered that the needs and desires of consumers take precedence over the assessment of effectiveness.
Physical characteristics of commercial and technological equipment installed capacity are characterized by and depend on the efficiency of its use. For example, to refrigeration equipment such parameters are the volume of refrigerating chambers, their capacity, turnover rate, etc.
Production capacity should be calculated on a "peak" demand, not its average level.
A comprehensive assessment of these and other options allows to select the most effective variant of management of material-technical base in the trade of consumer cooperation.