Management of trading-technological process
Effective management of technological process in retail is based on these components elements: the organization of work of the operating personnel (salespeople, cashiers, construction workers) and the use of material-technical base, the selection and application of appropriate forms and means of working with buyers.
The organization of labor and use of material-technical base. Effective organization of work of the personnel of trade enterprises is much more complex than the organization of workers of industrial enterprises. This complexity is due both to the nature of the trade and the characteristics of the environment in which it operates.
These features include: the heterogeneity and diversity of the nature of the trading activities, its scale, types and sizes of retail businesses; periodic growth and decline of activity of buyers; the dependence of the scheduling mode of trade enterprises of consumers; the complexity of defining and measuring the quality of merchant service and merchant services; complexity of assessment of work efficiency etc.
Effective organization of work of the operating personnel of commercial enterprises and the use of their material and technical base is ensured by: a) establishing optimal hours of work of commercial enterprise; b) the determination of the total optimal number of employees; C) optimization of the number of employees in the workplace in separate periods of the working day; d) use of effective payroll systems and incentives for performance n productivity.
The total duration of the working day commercial enterprise establish, given the modes of operation of the main production enterprises, organizations and institutions in the areas of business services, as well as the intensity of flow of customers from among non-working population (whether permanently or temporarily in a certain period of the day). The beginning and Saki?and"nna working day of the shop, as well as interruptions in its work should not coincide with a beginning, end and interruptions buyers, employees' organizations and institutions of the service area. The schedule of the day of the store is also affected by its product profile. For example, the working population mostly does not attend non-food stores before beginning their workday. As a rule, employed persons or persons working in shifts to visit the stores after 10 am, performing basic household work after work of other family members. Therefore, the optimal starting most stores with non—food assortment of goods-10—11 am.
On the contrary, shops on trade in consumer goods (bread, milk, etc.) needs to begin its work for 2-3 hours before the start of the day the main categories of buyers so that people could buy the products required to return to work.
The upper limit of the working day shops are also dependent on their commodity profile. The stores selling non-food items and food shops with universal assortment of the goods needs to work 2-3 hours after work working day buyers.
Specialty shops can finish the job in 2-3 hours before the end of the day the main mass of the working population.
Mode of the working week shops set on the basis of the interests of buyers. If within the service area there are several shops dnoprofile range, they establish a "chain" weekend or a special mode alternation of these stores, when General day each store serves customers in one of his days off, according to a special schedule.
Similarly, I expect the need for cashiers. The number of the other store employees is determined based on the physical volumes of work and standard indicators load on one employee.
For rational use of available workforce is also necessary to set the graphics output to work each salesperson, based on peaks or downturns flow of customers during the working day. Such graphs can be formed using the methods of queueing theory, based on the fact that the store is a Queuing system. Under the queueing system means a system that meets the needs of the population in the services of a certain type.
Queueing theory allows to determine the optimal number of sellers that provides the minimum cost of the whole system. The sequence of determining the optimal number of sellers that minimizes the cost of commercial enterprises, consists of the following steps.
The efficiency of the staff depends on the organization of remuneration of sellers, cashiers and other workers.
In consumer cooperatives mainly applies piecework wages of workers in retail — at the rates established for the types of retail outlets per 1000 rubles. of goods sold. Premiums are paid for quality performance of employees. In General, the applicable form of payment of workers of retail contributes to the improvement of productivity and quality of their work.
However, developing terms of remuneration of the staff of each commercial enterprise, in particular, need a more differentiated approach to solution of this problem, considering in each case the characteristics of the service area of the company, its product profile, the need for encouraging or discouraging the implementation of certain goods and, of course, encouraging a high standard of customer service. For example, in some stores should move from wage depending on the actual turnover for payment of sales of goods in physical measurements; promising is the stimulation of productivity by establishing the proportion of personnel net income of the company.
Process management of trading-technological process in retail establishments also provides for the selection and use of various forms of work with buyers.
Routine understanding of the retail associate usually with retail trade enterprise and those processes that occur directly in its trading room. In fact, however, the process of the retail sale of goods has two forms: the internal form of store implementation and photomagazine. Within these forms there are many means of working with buyers, each of which is a specific kind of Commission of the act
Internal store form of sale of goods is that the store represented the seller provides oral offer to the buyer that it called for. A verbal offer of a product should be used in conjunction with sound commercial and assortment policy, effective planning of the store and its streamlined organizational structure and be complemented by effective personnel work with sales staff.
The Manager must be able to effectively plan, organize, manage verbal offers of goods. It is targeted to the selection, preparation and training of sellers, as well as effective control over their work.
To means domestic store revitalization process for the sale of goods are also additional services that are provided to stores. Additional services in retail establishments are actions, benefits or satisfaction that are offered for sale or provided to buyer in connection with the purchase of their product. Services for retail businesses is an integral part of the General trade organization a significant means of stimulating trade.
Additional services include trade credit, delivery of goods to the home buyer, packaging of goods purchased, pre-sale preparation of goods, etc. the Experience of foreign companies shows that an important means of strengthening trading activities is photomagazine form of implementation. It includes a trade by telephone, selling products at home and in the field of labor buyers, bosilkovo trade through catalogs, through vending machines, theme offer.
The phone is an extremely effective tool to promote products. Abroad are several ways phone deals goods. Our conditions may be recommended, such. Almost every store there are times when buyers have little or almost no. These periods can be used if unoccupied the sellers will advertise or try to sell products over the phone, observing, of course, certain ethical rules.
Trade at home and in the places of work of customers is an important way of implementing certain categories and product groups. Trade at home is practiced in two forms: regular routes and the way to target visits with the demonstration. Distribution of stable trade routes carried out by auto shops that deliver to the buyers the bread, milk and dairy products, non-food goods of daily mass demand, some bakalan products.
Target trips with the demonstration are carried out as law, in places of work, for example, spring sowing in the collective farms and perigosa.
The range of goods, which are transported to the place of work, may include both the goods of daily consumption and more complex range of: clothing, perfume, cosmetics and so on.
Bosilkova trade. Retail trade poselkovoe can enjoy Department stores, and wholesale trade base of consumer cooperative societies. The management of this process involves effective advertising activities via Newspapers, radio, television.
Effective form of trading is also trade under catalogs. Foreign trading companies successfully combine this trade with regular trading activities in the traditional retail trade enterprises. In the system of consumer cooperatives such trade could make the Department store unions of consumer societies and wholesale base.
Sale of goods through vending machines. In many cases, the sale of goods through vending machines is ideal for small items that can be loosened portions, pieces or doses, near the store, as well as in crowded places: at bus stations, in schools, institutions, hostels.
The thematic range of goods. The products offered by a specific store (the range) may have a specific thematic focus that reflects the specific needs of the consumers, the complexity of their use, and even the architectural features of the building in which the store is located. For example, if you repaired the old chapel, the tower, you can arrange a shop for Souvenirs from local production. Buyers really like these stores, and this is an additional factor in the increase in turnover.
Thus, the management of trading-technological process in Rosny cooperative trade is extremely difficult, but important. Skillful use of various forms, means and approaches is a prerequisite for improving the efficiency of trading activities of consumer cooperation, as well as the satisfaction level of consumer demand for goods and services.