The essence and content of concepts "management" and its derivatives definitions
Kuznetsov. Fundamentals of management
Organization is the Foundation of the world managers, it is the cause that determines the existence of management. So before you start the study of management, you must first learn what the organization is and why it is necessary to manage.
The organization is a group of people whose activities are consciously koordiniruyutsya to achieve a common goal or goals.
In order to enable the organization to achieve its goals, tasks should be coordinated through vertical division of labor. So managing is an essential activity for the organization. It is an integral part of any human activity which, in varying degrees, in need of coordination. The management needs not only manufacturing, but also States, cities and territories, industry, hospitals and universities, churches and welfare Agency.
The philosophers of antiquity believed that the cause of the plight of society, as a rule, is the lack of governance or violation of seniority between people.
The English word "management" comes from the root Latin word "Manus" — hand; originally it belonged to the management of animals and meant the art of managing horses. Later this word was transferred into the sphere of human activity and has come to denote the science and practice of managing people and organizations.
Thus, on the surface it appears that management and control is practically a game in definition. Therefore, the translated literature "management" and "control" occur as synonyms.
However, it should be noted that the notion "management" is interdisciplinary in nature and semantics of this word is very complicated. The fundamental Oxford English dictionary defines management:
1. Method, the manner of communication with people;
2. The power and the art of management;
3. A special kind of skill and administrative skills;
4. Governing body, administrative unit.
In the "Dictionary of foreign words" of "management" is translated into Russian language as production management and as a collection of principles, methods, means and forms of production management with the aim of increasing the efficiency of production and its profitability.
In the modern theory and practice, management refers to the process of leadership (management) of the individual employee, work group and organization as a whole. Almost all well-known foreign encyclopedias interpret the concept "management" as the process of achieving the goals of the organization by the hands of other people. The subject of this process is the Manager.
Management theory investigates the system of functions and methods of management from the point of view behind them of the laws and principles, targeting methods, organizational forms, technologies, and techniques used.
Management principles — guidelines, the main provisions and norms of behavior that guide managers and governments. Management principles determine requirements to the system, the structure, organization and management process, such, for example, principles of management Fayol A.*.
Management activities managers can determine primarily as a combination of different control functions, which are a special types of activities, expressing the direction or the implementation phase of purposeful influence on the object of control. Functions answer the question — who does what in the control system.
Management practices — methods of exposure management agent on the managed object, the Manager for the organization, they offer variety, choice of ways of actions. The purpose of the control determines management practices and principles allow you to choose to achieve the purpose the most effective in these methods. Methods to answer the question — how to influence the facility management organization.
The object of the management management is primarily the organization.
The complexity and diversity of managerial activities allows for estimates to allocate up to 80 varieties pack
* Principle (from lat. principium — beginning, Foundation) — the basic rules of conduct, activities, the basic initial position of the theory, skills etc. management.
Consider the most important and significant of the governance types, primarily determined by the influence of the external environment, which is especially important in connection with what is happening in Russia transformations.
In connection with the privatization and division of property 4 between the center and places the constitutional distribution of powers of bodies of Federation and its subjects there is an internal differentiation of the concept "public administration", filling it with new content. If earlier it included species such as sectoral, territorial and regional management, allocated according to the respective characteristics of the object and subject of management, functional and program management, it now appears the concept of the Federal office, i.e. implemented in relation to the objects of Federal ownership, local management (municipality) and municipal management.
Proishodit the formation of private business control performed by the individual owner. In the case that the entrepreneur (owner) preporucam management specially invited to the Manager's private control transformirovalsya in professional management.
The transition to a market economy gave rise to new types of management such as innovation management, meaning the activities focused on the constant search and application of technical, technological, organizational and other innovations.
Situational management did not focus on finding the best way or the optimal solution, and the detection or selection is acceptable based on the circumstances. Situational management requires a broad decentralization and cannot be implemented in situations of extreme centralization.
Operational UPRAVLENIE is an activity focused on addressing current issues that require immediate solutions. Preventive (maintenance) management is in the early preparations for the possible and expected events with their probabilities of occurrence and consequences of inaction.
Competitive governance is the activities related to the implementation of the conclusion on insolvency of the debtor is mandatory.
Adaptive management is characterized by the ability of the control system to respond to changes in the external environment, it suggests a continuity of planning assumptions, uncertainty, etc.
There are also external control and internal control; democratic (conciliatory on the basis of consensus and voting was strongly based on the subordination of the minority to the majority) control and forced control.
The concept of trust management is generated by the concept of trust — personal or public property that is entrusted to other physical or legal persons. Unlike compulsory competitive management trust management does not allow the transfer of property to the trust without the agreement of the staff, even if more than 50% of the assets of the newly formed joint stock enterprises remains in state ownership. In some goods-producing industries of Russia have already established trust companies, operating on the basis of trust management.
There are also scientific management and experiential management. The first is based on the developed science recommendations, and the second on experience, common sense.
Provide a further selective control, i.e., management activities focused on identifying priority items (areas) for resource and other support. Against him applying such methods, as the additional delegation of authority, targeted financing, grants, credit and tax incentives, subsidies, subventions and preferences.
All of these types of management in practice closely intertwined and interdependent, which significantly complicates management activities, but the use of the capabilities of different species And obraze control systems leads to increasing their capacity and efficiency.
The most commonly used approaches to defining the essence and content management in special management literature is shown in Fig. 1.1.
As you can see, the concept of "management" can be viewed from different perspectives, each of which opens up new facets of the research subject of management science.
1. Management is viewed as a human activity aimed at achieving a particular goal or goals.
"The management creates economic and social development. It is the result. Wherever we contributed only the economic factors of production, especially capital, we have not achieved development. On the few occasions when we were able to generate energy management, we have generated rapid development. Development, in other words — it is more human power than economic wealth. Generating human energy and giving it direction is the task of management".
Characterizes the social function and importance of management Peter Drucker, the man who first, in the fifties, was able to recognize, summarize and describe the appearance in the world a new powerful factor in the development of man, perhaps, be called the founder of management as a systematic discipline.
Rarely a new social institution, the new leadership in society team, new key social function occurred with such speed, as management in our century. Rarely in human history, the new Institute quickly became indispensable. And never before new Institute did not cover the globe with such ease, crossing the boundaries of races and cultures, languages and traditions, as did the management for one generation.
And really, everywhere has been able to introduce management, began a rapid development.
Japan a hundred and twenty years ago was in all material respects, underdeveloped country. But she very quickly gave rise management is extremely comprehensive, excellent. Twenty-five years, Japan became a developed country, and in some aspects, such as literacy, the most developed of all countries. The latest example is "new industrial countries" of the Pacific basin. Apparently, we are dealing with some of the largest social innovation.
In domestic management literature, in many cases, when talking about the management of production, usually referring to the two sides of this concept — management as a structure (static management) and management as a process (dynamic control).
2. Management is defined as integration is the process by which professionally trained specialists develop organizations and manage them by setting goals and developing ways to achieve them.
The management process is an information process, i.e. the process of formation, perception, transmission, processing and storage of information. It is particularly noteworthy that management is not confined to information, but is impossible without information. These five stages of formation, transmission and use of information implemented in a number of research actions managers and executives in accordance with their job responsibilities.
The nature and content of the management process is evident in his features. The process of management involves the functions of planning, organization, coordination, motivation by which managers establish the conditions for productive and effective labor employed in the workers ' organizations and obtaining results consistent with the objectives. Therefore, the management is still the ability to achieve goals, directing work, intelligence, motives of behaviour of people working in the organization. This is the reason to consider management as the process of influencing the activities of an individual employee, group and the organization as a whole to achieve maximum results. This influence provides a certain category of people managers. Therefore, the management often identificireba with managers and also with the authorities or the management staff.
3. Management is viewed as a hierarchical organizational structure within which are implemented by management. In turn, the hierarchy control apparatus finds its concrete expression in the control circuit of one or another enterprise (organization). Thus, administration is an integral part of any organization and is associated with the concept of management. Without it, the organization as a whole education can exist and work effectively.
4. Management is viewed as a category of people who are involved in the management. The main managerial task is the effective use and coordination of all of the organization's resources (capital, buildings, equipment, materials, labor, information) to achieve the objectives.
5. In the twentieth century, management was allocated in independent field of knowledge, science has its own subject, its own specific problems and approaches to their solution. The scientific basis of this discipline is presented in the form of concepts, theories, principles, techniques and management systems. Management as science directs its efforts to the explanation of the nature of managerial work, establishing links between cause and effect, identification of factors and conditions under which the joint work of people, and more useful, and more effective. In the definition, management as science, emphasizes the importance of ordered knowledge about management. They allow not only to timely and qualitatively manage the current business, but also to predict the development of events, and in accordance with this to develop a strategy and policy organizations. Therefore, the science of management develops his theory, the contents of which are laws, principles, functions, forms and methods of purposeful human activities and management processes.
Understanding of management as an art management is based on the fact that organisations are complex socio-technical systems, which are affected by numerous and diverse factors, both external and internal environment. Therefore, management is and art that can be learned through experience and which in perfection only people who have a talent for it. Managers should learn from experience and to modify accordingly the subsequent practice of the conclusions of the theory. This approach allows us to combine the science and art of management into a single process, requiring not only constant replenishment of scientific knowledge, but also the development of personal qualities of managers, their abilities to apply knowledge in practical work.
Hence the need for a more detailed consideration of the content of the work of the Manager as the subject of the management process.