Kuznetsov. Fundamentals of management
As recorded in many Western European and American guidelines, managers are people who have a large volume of work with which they can overcome only with the help of other people. It used to be, the way it is in our days. The essence of managerial activity remains constant, changing only as the Manager and his methods. Compared to other types of labor in the organization of managerial work has a number of features, as expressed in the nature of work itself, its subject matter, results and used.
The specificity of tasks determines a predominantly intellectual, creative nature of managerial work. Managers do the human, financial and physical resources as productive as possible. They have a special piece of work — information converting they make the decisions necessary to change the state of a managed object. Therefore, as the instruments of labor managers are first and foremost a means of information. The result of their activity is evaluated on the achievement of goals. There are five basic operations in work of every Manager, whatever area he did. Their outcome is the integration of resources to sustain the viability and growth of the organization.
Manager, first sets out the objectives. It defines the tasks in each group goals. He decides what needs to be done to achieve these goals. He does them efficiently, reporting them to others whose work is necessary to achieve them.
Secondly, a Manager organizes. He analyzes the activities, decisions and relations required to achieve the aims. He divides them into managed together, and these collectively — managed labor problems. It groups these together, and tasks in organizational structure. He selects people for the management of these populations and for tasks that must be performed.
Thirdly, the Manager maintains motivation and communication. It is a team of people responsible for various jobs.
He does this by using specific techniques, through personnel decisions about pay, assignments, raises, and through the variety of decisions that determine the so-called "quality of work life" is not reducible neither to wages nor the working conditions in our usual sense. And he does this by maintaining constant communication with their subordinates, superiors and colleagues.
The fourth element in the work of the Manager is measurement. It establishes units of measurement there are few factors as important to the success of the organization. He's making sure each person has the indicators were focused on the organization as a whole and, at the same time in the work of this individual, and helping him to do it. It analyzes, evaluates and interpretirovat results. As in all other areas of work, he reports them to his superiors, subordinates and colleagues.
Finally, fifth, it promotes the growth of people, including myself. Referred to the quality of working life in one of the possible interpretations represent just a set of conditions conducive to the growth of the organization.
All these operations can be divided into categories of works, each of which requires specific qualities and qualifications.
The question often arises: who is Manager? It should be borne in mind that the Manager is not necessarily superior. The Manager makes the Manager not power, not rank and contribution to the activities of the entire organization and responsible for its results. In any modern organisation the fastest growing group of people who belong in this sense to the management, but typically do not have subordinates
Management, therefore, has no binding connection with delegation of power. Management problems of Autonomous and rooted in the needs of the enterprise. There are managerial posts, have a managerial job, have managerial skills and have distinct managerial organization. Managers are the basic resource of the enterprise. The fully automated factory can hardly be workers — but the managers will be there.
Managers — the most expensive resource and most quickly depreciating. It takes years to build a managerial team, but it can destroy in a few months. Growing investment in managers and the requirements of enterprises to them. This requirement is doubled every generation.
Being a Manager means to share responsibility for the success of the enterprise. Person wouldn't expect such responsibility — not the Manager.
Managers differ from other technicians only in that responsibility for the work of the entire enterprise. Difference between Manager market research with the staff of 50 people and the market researcher who does the same job without the machine, only the means, not in the contribution, and certainly not in function. Both the managers.
The Treasurer of the company, responsible for the inflow and use of money, may not have any subordinate and to work with investors, financial institutions itself. During the tenure he could not give any orders, his contribution is purely individual — and yet he is, without a doubt, Manager.
The Manager can be compared to the conductor of the orchestra. But the conductor has the score written by the composer. He is only the interpreter. The Manager immediately, and a composer and conductor. This requires maximum efficiency in the use of forces which he has (especially human resources), and neutralize weaknesses. The second task is to harmonize in every decision and action the requirements of immediate and distant future.