Types of models and organizations management
Kuznetsov. Fundamentals of management
The evolution of the theory and practice of management reflected in diverse directions. What is happening today in the theory and practice of management, called the "silent managerial revolution". Its beginning coincided with the entry of companies in the information stage. Replace the old, traditional direction in the management, reflected in the so-called American model of management, and the new, behavioral, behavioral, reflected in the Japanese model, comes a new (informal), which can be characterised as a revisionist, empirical or marketing, individualistic, "information".
The essence of the American model of management is in its initial belief that the success of the company depends primarily on the factors within its borders (the rational organization of production, reduce costs at the expense of revealing of intraindustrial reserves of growth of labor productivity and efficient use of all resources). The firm is regarded as a "closed system". In this approach goals and objectives are considered as given and stable over a long period of time; the basis of the strategy is continuous growth and specialization of production; the organizational structure is based along functional lines (with a clear division of the management services); critical control of all activities, precise performance of personnel management instructions from above.
The essence of the Japanese management model and organization of activities formulated by the American scientist of Japanese origin William Ouchi in his so-called "theory".
The Japanese model, resulting from the specific culture and economic system, is estimated by experts as providing the greatest harmony and mobility of the organization, so necessary in the modern dynamic world. Features of the Japanese system are in human resources and labour management, production, sales and Finance. The system of lifetime employment and promotion depending on seniority and age, organization of group work, wages based on age, contribution to the rationalization and quality of the process, the system of lifelong learning primarily in manufacturing — the main characteristics of this management model. The principle of optimization of the entire production system as the integrity is fundamental in the organization of production management.
If the proponents of modern Japanese management system proves that the Japanese firm is organization tailored to the person, the control system of U.S. firms, by contrast, views on the functions, tasks and the responsibilities, rights and interactions precede the hiring of workers. According to formulated requirements is the search for the most suitable candidates for a specific position, in other words, people adapt to the system.
Perfect (in the sense of efficiency and integration) organization, according to William Ouchi, should not have a formal organizational structure, nor any formal structure at all. As an example of a team with such structure of them is well-played basketball team.*
The essence of the marketing model — a new "philosophy" of management is defined by the following points:**
- rate per person self-fulfilling (in contrast to economic man and social man);
- the firm is regarded as a living organism, consisting of people who combine joint values as "clan";
- the firm should be in constant renewal, feeding an inner desire and are aimed at adaptation to external factors, chief of which is the consumer.
A new management philosophy based on the system-situational approach. Firm — open system. The main factors of its success lie not inside, but outside it. Success is associated with how well the firm fits into the external environment (economic, scientific-technical, socio-political) and adapts to it. The situational approach to management means that all the inner construction of a control system is response to the external environment. Institutional mechanisms to adapt to identify new challenges and develop new solutions. Maneuver in distribution of resources is appreciated above, than punctuality in their spending.
The embodiment of the new approach is strategic management, which involves the addition of the planning potential of the company, planning its strategies based on projections of the future state of the environment. The change in the situation causes strategy change.
Special provision is made to reduce resistance to change.
A new concept of management requires new installations to staff a new administrative culture (the desire for radical change, risk preparedness, organization for the development of new opportunities, etc.).
Experts rightly believe that there is no single ideal model of governance because each firm is unique. She needs to look for its own model. Among the factors that determine the choice of management model:
- the size of the firm;
- the nature of the environment in which it operates.
From the point of view of the latter, there are the following management model:
- rational model of corporate governance in a peaceful environment;
model management in a dynamic and diverse market;
model in terms of dynamic scientific and technical progress;
model fit to spontaneously and unexpectedly produced under the influence of the external environment of the firm issues.
Firms are in the process of constant search for its management model. It is a continuous process, because changing the firm and its environment. Most American companies conduct some organizational changes at least once a year, and a major reorganization is carried out every 4-5 years. The General direction of evolution — the transition from management models in the context of mass production and relatively low level of competition towards a model of management is largely individualized production and heightened competition.
Modern control system should be simple and flexible. Her main criteria is efficiency and competitiveness. According to experts, it should have the following characteristics:
- small units, staffed by fewer but more qualified people;
- a small number of management levels;
- structure based on groups (teams) of specialists;
- the nature and quality of the products, schedules and procedures, focused on the consumer.
According to Russian experts, management principles (90-ies of XX century) are:
1. Loyalty to employees.
2. Responsibility as a prerequisite of successful management.
3. Of communication penetrating the organization from the bottom up, top down, horizontally.
4. The atmosphere in an organization promoting disclosure of abilities of workers.
5. Obligation to determine the equity of each worker in the overall results.
6. Timely response to changes in the environment.
7. Methods of working with people, ensuring their job satisfaction.
8. Direct participation in the work of subordinate groups at all stages as the work in harmony.
9. The ability to listen to anyone he meets in his work Manager: buyers, suppliers, artists, executives, etc.
10. Business ethics.
11. Honesty and trust to people.
12. Reliance on the fundamentals of management: quality, cost, service, innovation, resource control, personnel.
13. The vision of the organization, i.e. a clear idea of what it should be.
14. The quality of personal work and its continuous improvement.
The need to study in our country in modern conditions
theory and practice of management is obvious. With the transition to a market economy businesses and enterprises operate in a qualitatively different conditions. What to produce, how and for whom — these issues they will decide. It is therefore of great interest and practical benefit consideration of modern methods and problems of management.