Integration of new approaches to management
Kuznetsov. Fundamentals of management
The emergence of management science was based on the use of concepts and methods developed for other disciplines. Moreover, in development there is a sort of complementarity, mutual enrichment of concepts and methods of different disciplines. So natural and natural is borrowing some of the fundamental provisions of other disciplines in methodological foundations of modern management. On the other hand, the theory and practice of management development has developed its own system of views on the principles, forms and methods of scientific knowledge.
Fundamental work on systems theory, chaos theory and complexity theory have influenced management theory. The science of the nineteenth century early taught to divide the world into fragments, to divide a whole into parts, in order to better exercise control over them.
The alternative to this is the consideration of the organization as a living organism. This requires a holistic integrated approach which reflects the main provisions of systems theory and chaos theory — the need to consider the behavior of the system as a whole. Living systems is the integration and their character depends on the whole. The same is true for organizations: to understand the most important problems of management, necessary to consider the entire system that causes these problems.
Thus, systems theory provided the discipline control framework for the integration of the concepts developed by the early schools with the concepts of new theories, including chaos theory and complexity.
The key points of the modern system of views on management are the following fundamental provisions.
1. A systematic approach to management. The fundamental discovery underlying the entire science of control, yav-. is the performance of the enterprise as a system of higher-' row complexity of the system, parts of which are men. Any genuine system, mechanical, biological, or human, characterizes interdependence. The whole system is not necessarily improved if one function or part is improved, becomes more effective.
The effect can be reversed: the system can be seriously damaged or even destroyed. In some cases, to strengthen the system, it is required to weaken it — to make it less accurate or less effective. In any system the important work of the whole: it is the result of growth and of dynamic balance, adaptation and integration, rather than simple technical efficiency.
The initial drawback of the approaches of different schools to the management is that they focus attention on a single important element, and does not consider the management efficiency as the result, depending on many different factors. This is the fundamental difference of the modern approach to management.Thus, a systematic approach is not a set of guidelines or principles for governing this way of thinking in relation to organization and management. This is why systems theory has helped to integrate the contributions of all schools which at different times dominated the theory and practice of management.
2. The application of situational approach in management. The situational approach has expanded the practical application of the theory of systems, identifying the main internal and external variables affecting organizations. Central to the situational approach is the situation, i.e. a specific set of variables (circumstances) that strongly affect the organization at a given time. In accordance with the situational approach, the entire management organization within the enterprise is not that other, as a response to different impact variables characterizing a specific situation. Organization and methods of control are built in accordance with the situation of currently the enterprise or institution. Changing situation — changing the specific task of changing the organization and methods. Thus, in contrast to all previous ways of managing collective actions in integrated management constant updating with a focus on the specific situation.
3. The new role of management — innovation (innovation), integration, internationalisation. The issues of innovation, integration and internationalization are the General problems of management. They are closely interrelated.
Innovations (innovations). This is one of the key problems of management. The high pace of technological and social progress pushed forward the management system, which proved able to quickly and effectively master the results of scientific and technological revolution.
Innovations have become a daily occurrence. The problem of innovations is wide: it not only a new technique or technology, but all sorts of innovations, including the economic, organizational and managerial. In the future, effective is not the kind of organization that works well today, and one that is focused on continuous renewal, innovation.
Integration. Today integration has a broad interpretation. It is not only the integration of production and integration of production and science, business and research organizations. It includes the Union, the coordination of production and social development. The integration of organization and individual is also one of the areas of integration. The firm is regarded as a living organism, consisting of people who combine joint values. In conditions of rapid change management based on passive workers, inevitably lagging behind compared to the control, which was able to mobilize the activity of employees, to put them to think about ways of working involve not only their hands but also the head.
In Japan, for example, a worker who works only with his hands, the firm does not need. In addition, he must also work well head, for example, in quality circles.
Internationalization. We are talking about processes that are objective. This is reflected in the increasing number of international corporations, and unions the type of the common market and the CIS. By itself, this trend of international division of labor is deeply progressive, she is focused on maximizing the productivity growth of international companies. Unfortunately, in some cases, while this process develops not so much as an object of cooperation, but as a process of rivalry and competition, including in the framework of the CIS. Great attention should be paid to the need for international cooperation in the field of management.
Innovation, integration, internationalisation, long-term planning and systematic approach, personality and organization, modern control technology is indeed the main problems faced by management.
4. The recognition of the social responsibility of management to society in General. The recognition of such liability is due to the fact that management creates economic and social development of society. This circumstance allows us to consider the management of the largest social innovation, which provides quick access to some of the underdeveloped countries in the category of the most developed, for example, Japan. According to the most common point of view, the organization in addition to responsibility of an economic nature must take into account the human and social impacts of their business activities on workers, consumers and local populations, among which is their activity, and also to make a contribution to the solution of social problems in General.
Increasingly, point of view, according to which organizations are responsible to the community in which they operate, over and above efficiency, employment, profit and non-violation of the law. The organization should therefore devote part of their resources and effort on social channels. They are required to sacrifice for the benefit and improvement of society. They have a responsibility to act in such numerous fields as environmental protection, health, education, security, culture, sports, etc.
Social expectations of business are developing rapidly in the direction of the voluntary response to social problems of society from the organization. Only joint efforts of public organizations and charitable institutions will allow to solve the problems of those areas in which they operate. However, it should be borne in mind that this is a clear shift towards increasing the social responsibility of managers meets the requirements of ordinary workers and managers to increase the income per share in quarterly basis.
5. Modern management science focuses on the chaos and complexity of the surrounding world. The world in which he lives most of today's leaders, often unpredictable, incomprehensible and uncontrollable. Today, scientists create methods by which complex systems can effectively cope with uncertainty and rapid changes, and in this lies the possibility of dialogue between management practice and science, successful use of science in practice. The formation of "chaos theory" (i.e. the transition from chaos to "chaos theory") and complexity, its use in the system of management of complex systems is a promising direction of improving the efficiency of organizations.