Factors of direct influence
Kuznetsov. Fundamentals of management
The factors of direct effects include those that directly affect the operations of the organization and experiencing the direct impact of the operations of the organization.
The organization and its environment can be represented as follows, let us Briefly characterize the external environment of direct influence on the organization.
1. Suppliers. This category of the external environment are usually classified as:
a) suppliers of materials, energy, equipment, and parts, i.e. it manifests the dependence on prices, timing, rhythm, quality etc. Moreover, this dependence has been recently growing with the deepening division of labor and the development of cooperatives. Firms increasingly focus on pre-emptive acquisition of component elements of the partners and the firms perform only certain operations, and this is true both for manufacturing and for firms in the service sector. So we can talk about the increase in increase their dependence on suppliers in the future. However, in relations between firms-customers and suppliers is changing, based on the Japanese system of subcontracting, the organization of an efficient supply chain.
In this case, the suppliers are passed additional authority and responsibility as in the design and production of products, allows to speak about managing suppliers.
b) providers of capital and financial services, is the dependence on volumes, terms of loans and payments, insurance services, etc. Usually there are the following investors: banks, insurance companies, other financial and non-financial companies, programs, public agencies in providing loans, shareholders and private individuals.
Large companies tend to due to the high level of profitability to secure a financial independence and to themselves to serve banks and even Finance other firms (sometimes this results in the creation of their own banks). An example is "AVTOVAZBANK", established by the Volga automobile plant, the Bank "Hermes", founded TNK "Germes-Union" and other Medium and small firms depend on external sources of funding and are forced to pay high interest rates on loans. Sometimes interest rate fluctuations change the orientation of the company. For example, in the US, when skyrocketing interest rates, construction firms (dependent on debt financing) were forced with the construction of individual houses to switch to the construction of apartment buildings.
C) labor force — that is, the dependence of the firm from the market, especially qualified personnel, requirements for wages, etc. in Spite of the inherent market economy unemployment, there is a constant shortage of qualified personnel in all fields. The shortage of specialists and high demands on the skill shortages are forcing companies either to look for such frames, or to invest heavily in their training, employment security, i.e. to move from primarily short-term hiring for long-term, social security.
With the factor "human resources" are closely linked and issues that arise in organizations with unions, with their demands for wages, social protection and working conditions. Moreover, in different countries, these relationships are manifested in different ways. So, in the United States the management of firms has traditionally been in conflict with the trade unions, and in Japan, they usually worked well together.
In Russia currently the cutting edge demands of the unions are directed towards the government, but with the development of privatization processes, one can expect their attention directly to the management of firms and organizations.
2. Laws and government agencies. Each organization has a specific legal status that determines how it can conduct business, what has rights and what are the responsibilities to the state and local governments. As is known, the state in a market economy is having on the organization as an indirect effect, primarily through the tax system, state property and budget, and straight — through legislative acts. For example, high tax rates significantly limit the activity of firms, their investment opportunities and push to concealment of income. On the contrary, the reduction in tax rates contributes to the attraction of capital, leads to a revival of business. And thus, through taxes the state can manage the development of the necessary areas in the economy.
3. Consumers is a factor in modern marketing phase of development management is seen as its basis. Consumers decide whether the firm to offset their costs, make a profit and therefore to its development. The diversity of external factors reflected in the consumer and through it affect the organization, its goals and strategy. Important in modern conditions and various associations and consumers ' associations, which influence not only the demand but also on the image of the firms. It is necessary to consider the factors influencing the consumer behavior of their demand. Moreover, it is necessary not only to predict but also to influence, "create user". Sometimes it is hard to identify the consumer, i.e. to have a clear idea about the structure of the needs that must be satisfied, especially if we are talking about trade structures are becoming more widespread. Manufacturers of industrial products typically dealt with end consumers and producers, the main means of production. But now they are faced with a new situation. As their products are on the way of implementation takes on the character of commodities, the dealers (agents and distributors) come to the fore in the field of consumer goods, and industrial products. If in this case there is a need to study the structure of the requests of new customers, these typically do dealers.
4. Competitors. In many cases, not consumers, and competitors to determine what goods and at what price you can sell. Moreover, the loss of, for example, 10% market share, generally entails a reduction in the rate of return on 5 — 8%.* Underestimation of competitors and revaluation of even the largest markets lead the company to significant losses and crises. Along with the struggle for markets is increasing competition for commodities, labor, capital, the right to use scientific and technical innovations.
The modern development of science and technology in terms of NTR greatly aggravated the competition between firms. The most important condition for the prosperity of the company is its continuous improvement and, above all, on the basis of modern achievements of science and technology. Scientific discovery, or an entirely new product or service can offer the firm to the pinnacle of success.
However, it should be noted that competition sometimes pushes firms and the establishment between them of agreements of various types from the section of the market up to cooperation between competitors.
5. Owners. One of the main influences on the organization having ownership and in fact its members — owners. This factor, however, like others, is closely intertwined with others such as internal environment and external environment of the organization. In terms of the diffusion of capital development of share capital formed a broad layer of owners has a significant impact on the development of organizations.